“…Present punitive methods will only increase the magnitude of medical and social problems facing this vulnerable population.” Katrina Hui, Dept. of Psychiatry, U of Toronto

‘Chemical endangerment’ laws in the United States mark an increasingly growing trend to punish women with substance use disorder. These measures are counterproductive. They create barriers to substance use treatment and prenatal care, disproportionately affecting minority and low-income women. Contingency
management programs and expansion of social services would be more effective in
protecting children and women and improving the problem more generally.