These data confirm findings from previous studies identifying arithmetic as a particularly sensitive developmental endpoint for prenatal alcohol exposure. Whereas difficulties with arithmetic in ADHD are mediated by domain-general deficits in overall cognitive ability, fetal alcohol-related arithmetic difficulties are mediated primarily by a specific deficit in the core quantity system involving the ability to mentally represent and manipulate number. These data suggest that different interventions are likely to be effective for remediating arithmetic problems in children with prenatal alcohol exposure than in non-exposed children with ADHD.