Much of the following research is provided courtesy of EU FASD for which we are grateful.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Prenatal choline supplementation during mouse pregnancy has differential effects in alcohol-exposed fetal organs
Choline prevents the alcohol-reduced gestational weight gain and fetal body weight and corrects fetal brain sparing, consistent with clinical findings of improvements in alcohol-exposed children born to mothers receiving choline supplementation.

Sciences & the Law – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and confabulation in psycholegal settings: A beginner’s guide for criminal justice, forensic mental health, and legal interviewers
Suggestions in this article hold the potential to decrease the risk of confabulation in the criminal justice system and decrease problematic outcomes, such as false confessions and wrongful convictions among individuals with FASD.

European Journal of Public Health – Available prevention and management interventions for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (2007 to 2017)
The uneven distribution of interventions designed for FASD vis-à-vis the burden of FASD in the different regions calls for a concerted effort for knowledge and intervention sharing to enhance the design of contextually sensitive preventive and management policy in the different regions.

Developmental Neurobiology – Long-lasting implications of embryonic exposure to alcohol: Insights from zebrafish research
The harmful consumption of ethanol is associated with significant health problems and social burdens. This drug activates a complex network of reward mechanisms and habit formation learning that is supposed to contribute to the consumption of increasingly high and frequent amounts, ultimately leading to addiction.

Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging – Corpus Callosum Morphometry in Children With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Alcohol is known to have a neurotoxic effect on the brain of offspring of mothers consuming alcohol during pregnancy.

Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics – “The Offspring of Drunkards”: Gender, Welfare, and the Eugenic Politics of Birth Control and Alcohol Reform in the United States
The social politics of women’s alcohol use is controversial given current debates over maternal-fetal health, fetal alcohol syndrome, and debates about welfare. Exploring the early twentieth century intersections of Prohibition, birth control reform, and alcohol politics reveals the historical roots of current recommendations surrounding women, alcohol, and public assistance.

Current Opinion in Pediatrics – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: current state of diagnosis and treatment.
FASDs are a common cause of neurodevelopmental impairment in school-age children, and their recognition is essential to provide early interventions in order to optimize the outcome for these individuals when they reach adulthood.

PharmacoEconomics – Budget Impact Analysis of an Epigenetic Test Used for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder from the Perspective of a Laboratory Budget Holder in Manitoba, Canada
Findings provide insight into the impact that DNA methylation testing would have on laboratory budgets if used in the diagnostic workup for FASD in individuals for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be confirmed otherwise.

International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction – Resilience Resources and Emotional and Behavioral Functioning Among Youth and Young Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
These findings complement previous research documenting the necessity of ensuring early stable relationships for youth with FASD and permitting timely access to diagnostic services.

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience – Examining the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on corticothalamic connectivity: A multimodal neuroimaging study in children
The results support the hypothesis that integrity of the corticothalamic tracts influences cortical alpha power. Further research is needed to understand how brain structure and function influence behavior.

Behavioral Sciences & the Law – Diminished culpability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
There is a biological basis for diminished criminal responsibility in offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) just as there is in those with intellectual disability.

Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders – Discrepancies in Performance-Based Measures and Teacher Ratings of Executive Function in the Assessment of FASD
Results suggest that tests and teacher ratings of executive functioning may not measure the same construct or other factors may be impacting this relationship.

University of East London – Children with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and their Experiences of School Belonging: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis
It is anticipated that this research will go some way towards raising the profile of FASD amongst frontline educational professionals in the UK.

Alcoholism – Prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in Greater Manchester, UK: An active case ascertainment study
FASD was found to be common in these schools and most of these children’s needs had not previously been identified. A larger, more definitive study that uses a random sampling technique stratified by deprivation level to select schools is needed to make inferences regarding the population prevalence of FASD.

Social Science & Medicine – Alcohol use during pregnancy in rural Lesotho: “There is nothing else except alcohol”
Within this context of chronic poverty and food insecurity, alcohol use during pregnancy will continue to represent a valid, though tragic choice if the structural conditions and current social arrangements that facilitate prenatal alcohol use remain unchanged.

Current Opinion in Pediatrics – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders current state of diagnosis and treatment
FASDs are a common cause of neurodevelopmental impairment in school-age children, and their recognition is essential to provide early interventions in order to optimize the outcome for these individuals when they reach adulthood.

Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy – Substance abuse in pregnancy
The use of screening tools such as brief office interventions assists in identifying women at risk or currently using harmful substances and is one strategy providers may implement to support a positive and healthy pregnancy outcome.

Cancer – Association between pregnancy intention and preconception health behaviors
Pregnancy intentions were associated with some healthier preconception behaviors in AYA survivors. Medical professionals caring for AYA survivors may consider pregnancy intention screening to guide conversations on preconception health.

Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin – Review of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable, lifelong disability that disproportionately affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of the available information on FASD among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with reference to the limitations on population-based data and evaluated programs.
https://ro.ecu.edu.au/aihhealthbulletin/vol2/iss1/1/

Drug and Alcohol Dependence – The frequency of severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the neonatal period using data from the French hospital discharge database between 2006 and 2013
This study provides the first national estimate of neonatal diagnosis of FAS, and more broadly pFASD, in France. Although our data certainly underestimate the real prevalence of FASD, they provide a minimal estimate of the burden of alcohol use during pregnancy. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037687162100243X

Biological Psychiatry – Corticostriatal circuit models of cognitive impairments induced by fetal exposure to alcohol
The term Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) includes a group of diseases caused by fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). FASD patients display heterogenous socio-emotional and cognitive deficits, particularly in the domain of executive function, which share symptoms with other neuropsychiatric disorders.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006322321013305

Italian Journal of Pediatrics – Sleep problems among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)- an explorative study
The results support the clinical observation that sleep disorders appear to be an important health problem in individuals with FASD. In particular distorted sleep architecture and apneic/hypopneic events need further attention.
https://ijponline.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13052-021-01056-x

The FASEB Journal – Altered Developmental Programming in a Dual Model of Maternal and Paternal Alcohol Consumption
According to the CDC, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. This definition places the fault for FASD-associated mental and physical defects exclusively on the mother.
https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.02510

Child Neuropsychology – Measurement of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure in Ukrainian preschool children
To examine the potential of a nonverbal battery in early identification of cognitive problems in alcohol-exposed children, 291 prospectively identified Ukrainian children were evaluated using a test battery focusing on early executive functioning (EF) and visuospatial skills, areas of cognitive development particularly sensitive to PAE in older children.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09297049.2021.1919298

Behavioural Brain Research – Effects of postnatal ethanol exposure and maternal separation on mood, cognition and hippocampal arborization in adolescent rats
Ethanol exposure and early life stress during brain development are associated with an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0166432821002606

Wellcome Open Research – Risk messages relating to fertility and pregnancy: a media content analysis
Frequent science-based risk messages in the UK media frame mothers as vectors of potential harm to children, who are the focus of health outcomes. Largely, the media does not introduce misinformation, but reports press releases faithfully with additional caveats and expert commentary.
https://wellcomeopenresearch.org/articles/6-114

The FASEB Journal – Epigenetic Toxicity: Preconception Paternal Alcohol Exposure and the Programming of Offspring Birth Defects
Paternally inherited alterations in epigenetic programming are emerging as a relevant factor in numerous developmental disorders. Despite the exclusive association of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) with maternal drinking, research from our lab indicates that paternal alcohol use is a relevant factor in this debilitating condition. https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.02516

Neuronal Cell Culture – Fetal Brain Injury Models of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Examination of Neuronal Morphologic Condition Using Sholl Assay
The lack of a convenient in vitro human neuronal model to study alcohol-induced neurodegenerative diseases, such as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), prompted us to develop human neuronal culture and in vitro human FAS model by incubating cells with physiologically relevant EtOH concentration (50 mM).
https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007/978-1-0716-1437-2_16

udiMundus – Substance use, mental health and dual disorders on pregnancy: results of prevalence and treatment rates in a developed country
Smoking and substance use during pregnancy are major preventable causes of mortality and morbidity, having a bidirectional and deleterious relationship with the mental health of the mother and child.
https://udimundus.udima.es/handle/20.500.12226/789

Women’s Mood Disorders – Substance Use Disorders in Pregnancy and Lactation
Women use substances and, for some, this use continues during pregnancy. It is not uncommon for women with substance use disorders to have a co-occurring mental health condition.
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-71497-0_14

The FASEB Journal – Prenatal alcohol exposure causes structural and functional cardiac defects, which can be prevented with folate supplementation
Increased regurgitant blood flow has been linked to endocardial cushion defects and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been shown to alter early blood flow resulting in abnormal endocardial cushions and CHDs.
https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.04388

Global Pediatric Health – The Burden of Adverse Neonatal Outcome among Antenatal Substance Users in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Substances mainly khat, alcohol and cigarette are used during pregnancy in Ethiopia. However, to this date, there is no pooled evidence about the burden of adverse neonatal outcomes among the substance users during pregnancy in the country.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2333794X211019699

Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Changes in alcohol consumption during pregnancy and over the transition towards parenthood
Further awareness of the risks associated with male-partner drinking could provide substantial public health benefits. Successful facilitation and implementation of interventions and harm reduction strategies for harmful drinking over the pre- to postnatal period could benefit from further consideration of socioeconomic status and education level, particularly for men.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0376871621002404

Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Partner influence as a factor in maternal alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms, and maternal effects on infant neurodevelopmental outcomes
Partner influence is an important contributor to prenatal alcohol use and maternal depressive symptoms, over and above the effect of SES. The significant paths from prenatal alcohol exposure to infant neurodevelopmental outcomes underscore the importance of partner influence during pregnancy.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14612

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Objective assessment of alcohol consumption in early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol: a cross‐sectional study
One in nineteen women consumed alcohol during early pregnancy with a high percentage not reporting this use to their obstetric care provider.
https://bmcpregnancychildbirth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12884-021-03804-7

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – Substance use among women who are pregnant: Examining treatment completion by race and ethnicity
Substance use during pregnancy is a critical public health issue that affects both the mother and the fetus. While research has assessed racial differences in treatment completion among women who are pregnant for specific types of substances, few studies have evaluated treatment completion for a variety of substances.
https://www.journalofsubstanceabusetreatment.com/article/S0740-5472(21)00163-X/fulltext

WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE – National FASD: Social Media Reimagined
It is important to look at the relationship dynamics between people with FASD and their supporting communities, who are also directly affected by these disorders. Along with affecting the lives of those diagnosed, these disorders also greatly impacts the lives of the caregivers and family members of those with FASD.
https://digital.wpi.edu/downloads/tq57nt83r

Acta Ophthalmologica – Visual perception problems and quality of life in young adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Young adults with FASD in the present study had more VPPs and worse VRQoL and HRQoL than healthy controls. In the FASD group, VPPs were reported in childhood as well as in early adulthood.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/aos.14868

Alcohol – Developmental ethanol exposure causes central nervous system dysfunction and may slow the aging process in a Drosophila model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Alcohol is a known teratogen, and developmental exposure to ethanol results in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Children born with FASD can exhibit a range of symptoms including low birth weight, microcephaly, and neurobehavioral problems.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074183292100046X

European Journal of Paediatric Neurology – Assessing the needs of caregivers of children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Results from a survey among families and professionals in Germany
The results of the present study indicate that FASD caregivers are supported insufficiently, while most of their needs remain unmet. Health care planners and providers thus urgently need to identify and implement measures to better address FASD caregivers’ needs and demands.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090379821000945?casa_token=zcGBDhtjec0AAAAA:HV-w2ttQqb7F7E1dqn90ricbi_obQH5b5w1jYu5mV8KvFwOnsZN02doh4SVRykp4ggBlKsfNWX5X

Europe PMC – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders-diagnosis, prognosis, and prevention
Besides health promotion and education of the general population, the knowledge transfer to doctors and other medical, psychological, and pedagogical professionals is of particular relevance.
https://europepmc.org/article/med/33942146

Paediatrics – Prenatal Exposure And Child brain and mental Health (PEACH) study: protocol for a cohort study of children and youth with prenatal alcohol exposure
This project will forge new understanding of FASD and mental health from a neurobiological perspective, highlighting key time periods (ie, sensitive windows) and brain regions (ie, that may be susceptible to neurostimulation), while identifying factors that predict individual trajectories of anxiety and depression symptoms.
https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/11/5/e051660

Creighton University – What is the effectiveness of sensory- and motor-based activities on improving sensory, motor, and executive functioning of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)?
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) impact approximately 2-5% of 6-7 year olds in the United States, affecting their executive functioning, sensory, and motor regulation.
http://dspace.creighton.edu:8080/xmlui/handle/10504/130303

BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health – Preconception alcohol consumption and risk of miscarriage in over 4.5 million Chinese women aged 20–49 years
Preconception alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of miscarriage, and an increasing risk was found with paternal and maternal alcohol drinking. Periconception alcohol abstinence was inversely associated with miscarriage.
https://srh.bmj.com/content/early/2021/05/09/bmjsrh-2020-201012.abstract

Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Effects of advanced maternal age and acute prenatal alcohol exposure on mouse offspring growth and craniofacial phenotype
Our results indicate that maternal age modulates the effects of PAE, but that the effects of this combination on offspring outcomes is more complex than simply scaling the effects of either factor.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14631?casa_token=2yJRYFUlN8kAAAAA:XjA-lh4xkewHKEa_Qvk7ZYOwGKWYZY11zh1IUXZCv6fH-dspmqfOcsuj5p8bSjcSVmdD0vXB5iLUAhLxxQ

Maternal and Child Health Journal – Pre-pregnancy and Prenatal Alcohol use Among American Indian and Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White Women: Findings from PRAMS in Five States
Factors associated with prenatal alcohol use differ between AI/AN women and NHW women, suggesting the need for tailored interventions.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-021-03159-7

Maternal and Child Health Journal – Pregnancy and Binge Drinking: An Intersectionality Theory Perspective Using Veteran Status and Racial/Ethnic Identity
Intersectionality Theory suggests that the stressors from membership in two vulnerable groups may lead to increased disparities. The results of this study highlight the unique experience of being a veteran and identifying as a member of a racial/ethnic minority group.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-021-03171-x

Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Effects of advanced maternal age and acute prenatal alcohol exposure on mouse offspring growth and craniofacial phenotype
Our results indicate that maternal age modulates the effects of PAE, but that the effects of this combination on offspring outcomes is more complex than simply scaling the effects of either factor.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14631?casa_token=aX7V-y0qH2wAAAAA:a4yixDWPQMsqe3IhHP-qTgFT3cfh9-EhwBYhpl3MJO9er2QfInlUzTaKiNbGfWglRr0UOnId5on5kE92NQ

BMJ Open – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder resources for educators working within primary school settings: a scoping review protocol
Many children affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit neurocognitive delays that contribute to secondary consequences, including a disrupted school experience.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030464/

Journal of Public Health – Measuring and understanding public awareness of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Alberta, Canada
The FASD Survey is a promising instrument to evaluate public awareness of FASD but it needs further improvement to make valid conclusions about FASD awareness.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10389-021-01550-w

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition – Polymorphisms in SLC44A1 are associated with cognitive improvement in children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: an exploratory study of oral choline supplementation
These SLC44A1 variants were previously associated with greater vulnerability to choline deficiency. Our data potentially support the use of choline supplements to improve cognitive function in individuals diagnosed with FASD who carry these effect alleles.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqab081/6238558

Frontiers in Public Health – Policy Requirements for the Prevention and Management of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in South Africa: A Policy Brief
This policy brief is aimed to guide policymakers in developing a comprehensive and multi-sectoral policy for the prevention and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.592726/full

Scientific Reports – Investigating the effects of chronic perinatal alcohol and combined nicotine and alcohol exposure on dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in the VTA
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of dopaminergic neurons and the dopamine (DA) reward pathway.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-88221-8

iScience – Cell-type and fetal-sex-specific targets of prenatal alcohol exposure in developing mouse cerebral cortex
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in cerebral cortical dysgenesis. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on murine fetal cerebral cortical cells from six timed pregnancies, to decipher persistent cell- and sex-specific effects of an episode of PAE during early neurogenesis.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589004221004077

DSpace/Manakin Repositoorium – Children born to substance abusing mothers
In our world today, we are facing an increase in mental health awareness. A major topic in this category is babies being born to addicted mothers. Children born to these mothers are entered into this world already needing help.
https://academicarchive.snhu.edu/handle/10474/3641

Bone – Pravastatin ameliorated osteoarthritis susceptibility in male offspring rats induced by prenatal ethanol exposure
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease associated with a disorder of cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) caused cholesterol accumulation in articular cartilage and increased the susceptibility to OA in offspring.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S8756328221001381?casa_token=O_Mn-BHWIqsAAAAA:F4Loe-OM6bxc4rZs739FDxHI9rUUcyO85Fmjk8Ihc3eOiXWiSQ4mGzNoccWKDrsGrAo8d8-mxho-

Maternal and Child Health Journal – Improved Maternal and Infant Outcomes with Serial, Self-Reported Early Prenatal Substance Use Screening
We identified improved maternal and infant outcomes with serial early prenatal substance use screening. Early maternal substance use identification is crucial for immediate referral for prevention and treatment, and for social and community services.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-021-03127-1

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition – Healthy preconception and early-pregnancy lifestyle and risk of preterm birth: a prospective cohort study
A healthy prenatal lifestyle with multiple low-risk modifiable factors was associated with lower risk of PTB. Our findings may inform multicomponent preconceptional or early-pregnancy prevention strategies to mitigate PTB risk.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqab089/6240164

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – Developing a model of care for substance use in pregnancy and parenting services, Sydney, Australia: Service provider perspectives
A harm reduction approach was crucial for promoting engagement of women with SUPPS, particularly child protection services. A greater focus on providing ongoing community-based support for mothers also has the potential to achieve sustainable positive outcomes for women and children.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074054722100146X?casa_token=KMzBedBmLDkAAAAA:NqbZq5egtDwTEmoCQxlQunRBuZd4EKs-jpMzH1EH5u_VeYu2HBThHVQa5VPXAsrnULURO-R5X_dR

JAMA Network – Association of Preconception Paternal Alcohol Consumption With Increased Fetal Birth Defect Risk
Maternal alcohol consumption is closely associated with alcohol-related birth defects and neurodevelopment,1 and therefore, it is widely recommended for women to quit consuming alcohol before and during pregnancy.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2778779

PrePrints – How Prenatal Exposures Shape the Infant Brain: Insights from Infant Neuroimaging Studies
Brain development during the prenatal period is rapid and unparalleled by any other time during development. Biological systems undergoing rapid development are at higher risk for disorganizing influences.
https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202104.0457/v1

BMC Research Notes – Maternal drinking and smoking. Can it explain the exceptional academic performance of LBOTE children? A preliminary analysis
Although children from language backgrounds other than English (LBOTE) may be disadvantaged in English-reliant exams, they outperform children from an English language background (ELB) on many Australian National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) assessments.
https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-021-05544-5

Development and Psychopathology – Maternal pre- and postnatal substance use and attachment in young children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maternal substance use has often been associated with insecure and disorganized child attachment. We evaluated this association with a meta-analysis of young children and, further, systematically reviewed mediating and moderating factors between maternal substance use and child attachment.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/development-and-psychopathology/article/abs/maternal-pre-and-postnatal-substance-use-and-attachment-in-young-children-a-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis/E637E89AB7908BBC189212BE58C8871E

Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare – Alcohol and illicit and non-medical prescription drug use before and during pregnancy in Stockholm, Sweden: a cross-sectional study
Approximately one in 25 women reported using alcohol and approximately one in 200 reported using illicit or non-medical prescription drugs while pregnant. Alcohol use during pregnancy may have decreased in Stockholm, Sweden.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187757562100029X?casa_token=UQ6Q92UruCAAAAAA:y6jbarutdJx0VHfdeodEXlf1VE8ciVkYxU5hTk7-TKDmWFJUrZVfUntN7EZLWqXjPcKg08xsSILV

Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: One Minute to Midnight
This reflection focuses on my experiences as a social worker working with individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and their families for almost 40 years.
https://reflectionsnarrativesofprofessionalhelping.org/index.php/Reflections/article/view/1824

ResearchGate – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Cognitive Function in Children: A Meta-Analysis and Computational Model
This meta-analysis examines 46 studies comparing 2,307 participants across a range of functional statuses. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard-Lamb-7/publication/350443376_Fetal_Alcohol_Spectrum_Disorder_and_Cognitive_Function_in_Children_A_Meta-Analysis_and_Computational_Model/links/605fc5c6a6fdccbfea0f59b2/Fetal-Alcohol-Spectrum-Disorder-and-Cognitive-Function-in-Children-A-Meta-Analysis-and-Computational-Model.pdf

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience – Functional connectivity of the attention networks is altered and relates to neuropsychological outcomes in children with prenatal alcohol exposure
Increased intra-network together with reduced internetwork FC suggests inefficient network specialization and impaired long-range FC among attention network regions after PAE.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878929321000426

Illinois Wesleyan University – Effects of Alcohol on the Skeletal Development of the Chicken Embryo
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is specifically characterized by growth and mental retardation, craniofacial malformations, and heart and neural defects, is caused by exposure to alcohol during embryonic or fetal development.
https://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/jwprc/2021/schedule/9/

REDAKCIJOS SKILTIS – Alcohol abuse in pregnancy: maternal characteristics, physical and health indices of their newborns (according to Lithuanian medical data of births)
Alcohol abuse complicated the course and outcomes of pregnancy: women who consumed it have had increased morbidity, miscarriages, or stillbirths, and their newborns were 4 times more often premature

and had lower average indices of physical status than the general population.
https://www.hi.lt/uploads/pdf/visuomenes%20sveikata/2021.1(92)/VS%202021%201(92)%20visas.pdf#page=63

The University of New Mexico – Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Toll-Like Receptors Activity Detectable in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth
These results support that even moderate PAE may alter the developing immune system, with alterations in cytokine expression that have the potential to impact lifelong immunological reactions.
https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hsc_2021_pediatric_research/11/

Department of Justice Canada – Exploring the Use of Restorative Justice Practices with Adult Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
There are serious concerns about the vulnerability and needs of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). FASD, a diagnostic term used to describe the impacts of prenatal alcohol exposure on the brain and body, is a lifelong disability.
https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/efasd-etcaf/efasd.pdf

Anales de Pediatria – Neurocognitive and behavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
A neurocognitive and behavioral profile specific for FASD has not been defined and all the symptoms are common to other etiologies. The aim of this work is to review the neuropsychological profile in the diagnosis of TEAF. https://europepmc.org/article/med/33745838

Nutrients – The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes.
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/3/1036

WALDEN DISSERTATIONS AND DOCTORAL STUDIES – Multiple Case Analysis Exploration of Prenatal Substance Exposure on Juvenile Adjudicative Competence
This study promotes positive social change by providing insight into the neurological and cognitive factors that affect adolescents’ psycholegal abilities when there is prenatal substance exposure. Juveniles with prenatal substance exposure are a vulnerable population that needs protective measures to ensure their constitutional rights.
https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/10285/

Exploratio – Maternal, Fetal, and Long-term Effects of Substance Abuse During Pregnancy
Substance abuse has continued to be a major public health concern for many years. Over the past couple decades, the rates for addiction have increased drastically, affecting many more women than before.
https://www.exploratiojournal.com/maternal-fetal-and-long-term-effects-of-substance-abuse-during-pregnancy/

Neurotoxicity Research – Neuroimaging of Supraventricular Frontal White Matter in Children with Familial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Due to Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
These findings suggest white matter differences between the PAE and familial etiologies of ADHD. Abnormalities detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging co-localize in supraventricular white matter and are relevant to executive function symptoms of ADHD.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12640-021-00342-0

Oxford Research Encyclopedia – Substance Use and Use Disorders in Pregnancy in Two Cultural Contexts: The United States and Afghanistan
Women in all countries use substances, and for some women, such use continues during pregnancy. When substance use impairs life functioning and becomes a use disorder, regardless of the type of substance, effective treatments are available (e.g., medication to treat opioid and alcohol use disorders and behavioral approaches to treat tobacco, stimulant, and other substances). https://oxfordre.com/publichealth/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190632366.001.0001/acrefore-9780190632366-e-187

Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing – Scoping Review of the Associations Between Perinatal Substance Use and Perinatal Depression and Anxiety
There is a paucity of published research on co-occurring PSU and PDA. However, polysubstance use appears to be associated with the greatest risk for PDA. It is essential to address PSU and PDA together to better understand the effects on maternal and infant outcomes.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0884217521000502

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry – Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in neonatal meconium: application in two cases of alcohol consumption during pregnancy
The method proved to be sensitive, specific, simple and fast and allowed for the reduction of the amount of organic solvent used for extraction compared to other published data while higher recoveries were obtained. The method was used for analysis of meconium samples in two cases of mothers who were consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-021-03248-0

Psychopharmacology – Neural mechanisms of sexual decision-making in women with alcohol use disorder
Visual sexual cues produced reactivity like that previously demonstrated for alcohol cues, suggesting a shared or domain-general mechanism for alcohol and sexual cue reactivity in women with AUD.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-021-05815-w

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – “The Problem Is that We Hear a Bit of Everything . . . ”: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Alcohol Use, Reduction, and Abstinence in Pregnancy
The impact of structural and systemic factors on prenatal alcohol use was largely absent in the included studies, instead focusing on individual choice. This silence risks perpetuating stigma and highlights the criticality of addressing intersecting structural and systemic factors in supporting maternal and fetal health.
https://bccewh.bc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/ijerph-18-03445.pdf

Global Pediatric Health – Institutionalized Children and the Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD); A Primer for Clinicians, Adoption Staff and Parents
A large proportion of adopted institutionalized children may not follow a normal developmental trajectory. If not afflicted by FASD, there is a positive impact of adoption on children’s cognitive development and in general they are comparable to their non- adopted peers.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2333794X21989556

Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability – “It’s ignorant stereotypes”: Key stakeholder perspectives on stereotypes associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, alcohol, and pregnancy
Our results align with research about difficult experiences of FASD stakeholders. However, while Canadian news analyses found people with FASD portrayed as criminals, our participants identified mostly non-crime stereotypes. Participants also sometimes shifted the burden of motherhood stereotypes from low-income to higher-income women.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13668250.2020.1865649

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada – Perspectives of Canadian Health Care Providers on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A brief report exploring 15 years
The findings from these surveys may inform the development of ongoing educational initiatives to help HCPs with screening for alcohol use during pregnancy and early diagnosis and prevention of FASD.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1701216321000712

European Journal of Paediatric Neurology – Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders – A systematic review
There are only a few randomized-controlled trials regarding therapy research for children and adolescents with FASD. Evidence-based intervention studies indicate that especially the combination of parent and child sessions present a promising approach for the treatment of FASD.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090379821000131?casa_token=T39ua5GOJhIAAAAA:M0vjKimEb_xlum1Gmd5QM5uYjx9zAlBCA__YeY2i-IXO4xLNVPz3OMAnKEcC8D8_bcYuQUYVM3xg

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Estimated Prevalence of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Pregnant and Non‐pregnant Women in Saxony‐Anhalt (North‐East Germany) Using Biomarkers
Estimated prevalence rates differ greatly with respect to the biomarkers and cut‐offs used. The isolated measurement of CDT/%CDT might result in an overestimation of harmful alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14567

Journal of Neuroscience Research – Ethanol modulation of cerebellar neuroinflammation in a postnatal mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are alarmingly common, result in significant personal and societal loss, and there is no effective treatment for these disorders.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jnr.24797?casa_token=RDxhPa2bZbYAAAAA%3AwtP9Ow11_bPMJnOzV1kuzbwNOECE0fmVc_u31hBjZtdqp-el9pjcZCJKnT-Nvej3-Q1o6mg03ey6ZLmp

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Barriers and enablers of implementation of alcohol guidelines with pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey among UK midwives
Our results suggest that skill development and reinforcement of support from colleagues and the wider maternity system could support midwives’ implementation of alcohol advice at each antenatal appointment, not just at booking could lead to improved outcomes for women and infants.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12884-021-03583-1

Plos one – Protective factors against tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women from a tribal nation in the Central United States
Identifying social determinants of tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy is critical to improving health outcomes for the next generation. This is especially important on a rural Tribal Nation where influences such as isolation, cultural barriers, and historical trauma have made it uniquely challenging to prevent substance use during pregnancy.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243924

Children – Maternal Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Relation to Child Malnutrition in Gauteng, South Africa: A Retrospective Analysis
This study determined the association between maternal tobacco and alcohol use, and malnutrition, among infants aged ≤ 12 months (n = 300), in selected health facilities situated in Gauteng, South Africa.
https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/8/2/133

Molecular Medicine Reports – Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs the formation of radial glial fibers and promotes the transformation of GFAPδ‑positive radial glial cells into astrocytes
During embryonic cortical development, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the major source of neurons, and these also serve as a supportive scaffold to guide neuronal migration. Similar to Vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is one of the major intermediate filament proteins present in glial cells.
https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2021.11913

Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research – Phosphatidylethanol as Blood Biomarker of Alcohol Consumption in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Study in 4067 Pregnant Women
In an unselected pregnant population in Norway 1.4 % had a positive PEth sample around gestational week 12 whereas 0.4% had a positive sample around week 24. The use of PEth as an alcohol biomarker should be further investigated as a possible diagnostic tool in the antenatal setting.
https://europepmc.org/article/med/33586791

BMC Psychiatry – Magnitude and associated factors of substance use among

pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia
The magnitude of antenatal substance use in the study area was 26.5%. Pre- pregnancy substance use, partner substance use, monthly house hold income and family substance use were found to be positively associated with substance use during pregnancy.
https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-021-03078-5

Child Maltreatment – Prenatal Substance Exposure and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review
State and federal policies regarding substance use in pregnancy, specifically whether a notification to child protective services is required, continue to evolve. To inform practice, policy, and future research, we sought to synthesize and critically evaluate the existing literature regarding the association of prenatal substance exposure with child maltreatment.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1077559521990116?casa_token=Yp5oVPhQyCQAAAAA%3A1ElEHiIu0GxRsvQ3KNP8jbhEEzt9SlEYDLbiJtrn6SBDfzANJmBNpqu95AkjScz0YWrdM-duBWixIVE

Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Timing of mortality in mothers with recurrent convictions for driving under the influence of alcohol and their children, from childbirth to child age 17
Severe maternal AUD, as characterized by rDUI, increases the risk for child mortality over that of Controls through age 17. Delays in rDUI maternal mortality until child age 6 may indicate a period when maternal referral for intervention to reduce harm to child and mother is likely to be especially effective.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871621001150?casa_token=cpaPrBqAepYAAAAA:Ki6Q0ugPbTCv6JNPJiHocS0IIRR8u8Qc4jCDLh9dZty1IE-X_ax7hZQ-JCqt18mBEE_0rj1sbFv1

Public health nursing – Intimate partner violence, prenatal stress, and substance use among pregnant Black women
Perceived stress during pregnancy partially mediated the association between previous experience of IPV and marijuana use among pregnant Black women. Interventions are needed to reduce IPV that would lower stress during pregnancy and consequently substance abuse to improve pregnancy outcomes and maternal and newborn health.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33590543/

Public Health Reports – Discordance Between Perinatal Alcohol Use Among Women and Provider Counseling for Alcohol Use: An Assessment of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
Disparities in alcohol counseling occurred despite the national recommendation for universal screening and counseling prenatally. Continued integration of universal screening for alcohol use during pregnancy is needed.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0033354920984146?casa_token=NR0T-oHJeh0AAAAA%3Am8mlQ41vFCl1Z-J_98lXq3uGQtggnrWzh3uw42G25z1Oi7FzZHEmzTTYiT06WcvUSl4UTMMxzVCwC5Q