Much of the following research is provided courtesy of EU FASD for which we are grateful.

BMJ Open – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder resources for educators working within primary school settings: a scoping review protocol
Many children affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit neurocognitive delays that contribute to secondary consequences, including a disrupted school experience.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8030464/

Journal of Public Health – Measuring and understanding public awareness of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in Alberta, Canada
The FASD Survey is a promising instrument to evaluate public awareness of FASD but it needs further improvement to make valid conclusions about FASD awareness.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10389-021-01550-w

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition – Polymorphisms in SLC44A1 are associated with cognitive improvement in children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: an exploratory study of oral choline supplementation
These SLC44A1 variants were previously associated with greater vulnerability to choline deficiency. Our data potentially support the use of choline supplements to improve cognitive function in individuals diagnosed with FASD who carry these effect alleles.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqab081/6238558

Frontiers in Public Health – Policy Requirements for the Prevention and Management of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in South Africa: A Policy Brief
This policy brief is aimed to guide policymakers in developing a comprehensive and multi-sectoral policy for the prevention and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2021.592726/full

Scientific Reports – Investigating the effects of chronic perinatal alcohol and combined nicotine and alcohol exposure on dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in the VTA
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of dopaminergic neurons and the dopamine (DA) reward pathway.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-88221-8

iScience – Cell-type and fetal-sex-specific targets of prenatal alcohol exposure in developing mouse cerebral cortex
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in cerebral cortical dysgenesis. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on murine fetal cerebral cortical cells from six timed pregnancies, to decipher persistent cell- and sex-specific effects of an episode of PAE during early neurogenesis.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589004221004077

DSpace/Manakin Repositoorium – Children born to substance abusing mothers
In our world today, we are facing an increase in mental health awareness. A major topic in this category is babies being born to addicted mothers. Children born to these mothers are entered into this world already needing help.
https://academicarchive.snhu.edu/handle/10474/3641

Bone – Pravastatin ameliorated osteoarthritis susceptibility in male offspring rats induced by prenatal ethanol exposure
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease associated with a disorder of cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) caused cholesterol accumulation in articular cartilage and increased the susceptibility to OA in offspring.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S8756328221001381?casa_token=O_Mn-BHWIqsAAAAA:F4Loe-OM6bxc4rZs739FDxHI9rUUcyO85Fmjk8Ihc3eOiXWiSQ4mGzNoccWKDrsGrAo8d8-mxho-

Maternal and Child Health Journal – Improved Maternal and Infant Outcomes with Serial, Self-Reported Early Prenatal Substance Use Screening
We identified improved maternal and infant outcomes with serial early prenatal substance use screening. Early maternal substance use identification is crucial for immediate referral for prevention and treatment, and for social and community services.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10995-021-03127-1

American Journal of Clinical Nutrition – Healthy preconception and early-pregnancy lifestyle and risk of preterm birth: a prospective cohort study
A healthy prenatal lifestyle with multiple low-risk modifiable factors was associated with lower risk of PTB. Our findings may inform multicomponent preconceptional or early-pregnancy prevention strategies to mitigate PTB risk.
https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ajcn/nqab089/6240164

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment – Developing a model of care for substance use in pregnancy and parenting services, Sydney, Australia: Service provider perspectives
A harm reduction approach was crucial for promoting engagement of women with SUPPS, particularly child protection services. A greater focus on providing ongoing community-based support for mothers also has the potential to achieve sustainable positive outcomes for women and children.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S074054722100146X?casa_token=KMzBedBmLDkAAAAA:NqbZq5egtDwTEmoCQxlQunRBuZd4EKs-jpMzH1EH5u_VeYu2HBThHVQa5VPXAsrnULURO-R5X_dR

JAMA Network – Association of Preconception Paternal Alcohol Consumption With Increased Fetal Birth Defect Risk
Maternal alcohol consumption is closely associated with alcohol-related birth defects and neurodevelopment,1 and therefore, it is widely recommended for women to quit consuming alcohol before and during pregnancy.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapediatrics/article-abstract/2778779

PrePrints – How Prenatal Exposures Shape the Infant Brain: Insights from Infant Neuroimaging Studies
Brain development during the prenatal period is rapid and unparalleled by any other time during development. Biological systems undergoing rapid development are at higher risk for disorganizing influences.
https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202104.0457/v1

BMC Research Notes – Maternal drinking and smoking. Can it explain the exceptional academic performance of LBOTE children? A preliminary analysis
Although children from language backgrounds other than English (LBOTE) may be disadvantaged in English-reliant exams, they outperform children from an English language background (ELB) on many Australian National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) assessments.
https://bmcresnotes.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13104-021-05544-5

Development and Psychopathology – Maternal pre- and postnatal substance use and attachment in young children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maternal substance use has often been associated with insecure and disorganized child attachment. We evaluated this association with a meta-analysis of young children and, further, systematically reviewed mediating and moderating factors between maternal substance use and child attachment.
https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/development-and-psychopathology/article/abs/maternal-pre-and-postnatal-substance-use-and-attachment-in-young-children-a-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis/E637E89AB7908BBC189212BE58C8871E

Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare – Alcohol and illicit and non-medical prescription drug use before and during pregnancy in Stockholm, Sweden: a cross-sectional study
Approximately one in 25 women reported using alcohol and approximately one in 200 reported using illicit or non-medical prescription drugs while pregnant. Alcohol use during pregnancy may have decreased in Stockholm, Sweden.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187757562100029X?casa_token=UQ6Q92UruCAAAAAA:y6jbarutdJx0VHfdeodEXlf1VE8ciVkYxU5hTk7-TKDmWFJUrZVfUntN7EZLWqXjPcKg08xsSILV

Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: One Minute to Midnight
This reflection focuses on my experiences as a social worker working with individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and their families for almost 40 years.
https://reflectionsnarrativesofprofessionalhelping.org/index.php/Reflections/article/view/1824

ResearchGate – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Cognitive Function in Children: A Meta-Analysis and Computational Model
This meta-analysis examines 46 studies comparing 2,307 participants across a range of functional statuses. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard-Lamb-7/publication/350443376_Fetal_Alcohol_Spectrum_Disorder_and_Cognitive_Function_in_Children_A_Meta-Analysis_and_Computational_Model/links/605fc5c6a6fdccbfea0f59b2/Fetal-Alcohol-Spectrum-Disorder-and-Cognitive-Function-in-Children-A-Meta-Analysis-and-Computational-Model.pdf

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience – Functional connectivity of the attention networks is altered and relates to neuropsychological outcomes in children with prenatal alcohol exposure
Increased intra-network together with reduced internetwork FC suggests inefficient network specialization and impaired long-range FC among attention network regions after PAE.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1878929321000426

Illinois Wesleyan University – Effects of Alcohol on the Skeletal Development of the Chicken Embryo
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is specifically characterized by growth and mental retardation, craniofacial malformations, and heart and neural defects, is caused by exposure to alcohol during embryonic or fetal development.
https://digitalcommons.iwu.edu/jwprc/2021/schedule/9/

REDAKCIJOS SKILTIS – Alcohol abuse in pregnancy: maternal characteristics, physical and health indices of their newborns (according to Lithuanian medical data of births)
Alcohol abuse complicated the course and outcomes of pregnancy: women who consumed it have had increased morbidity, miscarriages, or stillbirths, and their newborns were 4 times more often premature

and had lower average indices of physical status than the general population.
https://www.hi.lt/uploads/pdf/visuomenes%20sveikata/2021.1(92)/VS%202021%201(92)%20visas.pdf#page=63

The University of New Mexico – Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Toll-Like Receptors Activity Detectable in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth
These results support that even moderate PAE may alter the developing immune system, with alterations in cytokine expression that have the potential to impact lifelong immunological reactions.
https://digitalrepository.unm.edu/hsc_2021_pediatric_research/11/

Department of Justice Canada – Exploring the Use of Restorative Justice Practices with Adult Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
There are serious concerns about the vulnerability and needs of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). FASD, a diagnostic term used to describe the impacts of prenatal alcohol exposure on the brain and body, is a lifelong disability.
https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/jr/efasd-etcaf/efasd.pdf

Anales de Pediatria – Neurocognitive and behavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
A neurocognitive and behavioral profile specific for FASD has not been defined and all the symptoms are common to other etiologies. The aim of this work is to review the neuropsychological profile in the diagnosis of TEAF. https://europepmc.org/article/med/33745838

Nutrients – The Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes.
https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/13/3/1036

WALDEN DISSERTATIONS AND DOCTORAL STUDIES – Multiple Case Analysis Exploration of Prenatal Substance Exposure on Juvenile Adjudicative Competence
This study promotes positive social change by providing insight into the neurological and cognitive factors that affect adolescents’ psycholegal abilities when there is prenatal substance exposure. Juveniles with prenatal substance exposure are a vulnerable population that needs protective measures to ensure their constitutional rights.
https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/dissertations/10285/

Exploratio – Maternal, Fetal, and Long-term Effects of Substance Abuse During Pregnancy
Substance abuse has continued to be a major public health concern for many years. Over the past couple decades, the rates for addiction have increased drastically, affecting many more women than before.
https://www.exploratiojournal.com/maternal-fetal-and-long-term-effects-of-substance-abuse-during-pregnancy/

Neurotoxicity Research – Neuroimaging of Supraventricular Frontal White Matter in Children with Familial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Due to Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
These findings suggest white matter differences between the PAE and familial etiologies of ADHD. Abnormalities detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging co-localize in supraventricular white matter and are relevant to executive function symptoms of ADHD.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12640-021-00342-0

Oxford Research Encyclopedia – Substance Use and Use Disorders in Pregnancy in Two Cultural Contexts: The United States and Afghanistan
Women in all countries use substances, and for some women, such use continues during pregnancy. When substance use impairs life functioning and becomes a use disorder, regardless of the type of substance, effective treatments are available (e.g., medication to treat opioid and alcohol use disorders and behavioral approaches to treat tobacco, stimulant, and other substances). https://oxfordre.com/publichealth/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190632366.001.0001/acrefore-9780190632366-e-187

Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing – Scoping Review of the Associations Between Perinatal Substance Use and Perinatal Depression and Anxiety
There is a paucity of published research on co-occurring PSU and PDA. However, polysubstance use appears to be associated with the greatest risk for PDA. It is essential to address PSU and PDA together to better understand the effects on maternal and infant outcomes.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0884217521000502

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry – Development and validation of a method for the simultaneous analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl sulfate and ethyl glucuronide in neonatal meconium: application in two cases of alcohol consumption during pregnancy
The method proved to be sensitive, specific, simple and fast and allowed for the reduction of the amount of organic solvent used for extraction compared to other published data while higher recoveries were obtained. The method was used for analysis of meconium samples in two cases of mothers who were consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00216-021-03248-0

Psychopharmacology – Neural mechanisms of sexual decision-making in women with alcohol use disorder
Visual sexual cues produced reactivity like that previously demonstrated for alcohol cues, suggesting a shared or domain-general mechanism for alcohol and sexual cue reactivity in women with AUD.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00213-021-05815-w

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – “The Problem Is that We Hear a Bit of Everything . . . ”: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Alcohol Use, Reduction, and Abstinence in Pregnancy
The impact of structural and systemic factors on prenatal alcohol use was largely absent in the included studies, instead focusing on individual choice. This silence risks perpetuating stigma and highlights the criticality of addressing intersecting structural and systemic factors in supporting maternal and fetal health.
https://bccewh.bc.ca/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/ijerph-18-03445.pdf

Global Pediatric Health – Institutionalized Children and the Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD); A Primer for Clinicians, Adoption Staff and Parents
A large proportion of adopted institutionalized children may not follow a normal developmental trajectory. If not afflicted by FASD, there is a positive impact of adoption on children’s cognitive development and in general they are comparable to their non- adopted peers.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/2333794X21989556

Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability – “It’s ignorant stereotypes”: Key stakeholder perspectives on stereotypes associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, alcohol, and pregnancy
Our results align with research about difficult experiences of FASD stakeholders. However, while Canadian news analyses found people with FASD portrayed as criminals, our participants identified mostly non-crime stereotypes. Participants also sometimes shifted the burden of motherhood stereotypes from low-income to higher-income women.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13668250.2020.1865649

Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada – Perspectives of Canadian Health Care Providers on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A brief report exploring 15 years
The findings from these surveys may inform the development of ongoing educational initiatives to help HCPs with screening for alcohol use during pregnancy and early diagnosis and prevention of FASD.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1701216321000712

European Journal of Paediatric Neurology – Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders – A systematic review
There are only a few randomized-controlled trials regarding therapy research for children and adolescents with FASD. Evidence-based intervention studies indicate that especially the combination of parent and child sessions present a promising approach for the treatment of FASD.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1090379821000131?casa_token=T39ua5GOJhIAAAAA:M0vjKimEb_xlum1Gmd5QM5uYjx9zAlBCA__YeY2i-IXO4xLNVPz3OMAnKEcC8D8_bcYuQUYVM3xg

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Estimated Prevalence of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Pregnant and Non‐pregnant Women in Saxony‐Anhalt (North‐East Germany) Using Biomarkers
Estimated prevalence rates differ greatly with respect to the biomarkers and cut‐offs used. The isolated measurement of CDT/%CDT might result in an overestimation of harmful alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/acer.14567

Journal of Neuroscience Research – Ethanol modulation of cerebellar neuroinflammation in a postnatal mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are alarmingly common, result in significant personal and societal loss, and there is no effective treatment for these disorders.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jnr.24797?casa_token=RDxhPa2bZbYAAAAA%3AwtP9Ow11_bPMJnOzV1kuzbwNOECE0fmVc_u31hBjZtdqp-el9pjcZCJKnT-Nvej3-Q1o6mg03ey6ZLmp

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Barriers and enablers of implementation of alcohol guidelines with pregnant women: a cross-sectional survey among UK midwives
Our results suggest that skill development and reinforcement of support from colleagues and the wider maternity system could support midwives’ implementation of alcohol advice at each antenatal appointment, not just at booking could lead to improved outcomes for women and infants.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12884-021-03583-1

Plos one – Protective factors against tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women from a tribal nation in the Central United States
Identifying social determinants of tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy is critical to improving health outcomes for the next generation. This is especially important on a rural Tribal Nation where influences such as isolation, cultural barriers, and historical trauma have made it uniquely challenging to prevent substance use during pregnancy.
https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243924

Children – Maternal Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Relation to Child Malnutrition in Gauteng, South Africa: A Retrospective Analysis
This study determined the association between maternal tobacco and alcohol use, and malnutrition, among infants aged ≤ 12 months (n = 300), in selected health facilities situated in Gauteng, South Africa.
https://www.mdpi.com/2227-9067/8/2/133

Molecular Medicine Reports – Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs the formation of radial glial fibers and promotes the transformation of GFAPδ‑positive radial glial cells into astrocytes
During embryonic cortical development, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the major source of neurons, and these also serve as a supportive scaffold to guide neuronal migration. Similar to Vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is one of the major intermediate filament proteins present in glial cells.
https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mmr.2021.11913

Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research – Phosphatidylethanol as Blood Biomarker of Alcohol Consumption in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Study in 4067 Pregnant Women
In an unselected pregnant population in Norway 1.4 % had a positive PEth sample around gestational week 12 whereas 0.4% had a positive sample around week 24. The use of PEth as an alcohol biomarker should be further investigated as a possible diagnostic tool in the antenatal setting.
https://europepmc.org/article/med/33586791

BMC Psychiatry – Magnitude and associated factors of substance use among

pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia
The magnitude of antenatal substance use in the study area was 26.5%. Pre- pregnancy substance use, partner substance use, monthly house hold income and family substance use were found to be positively associated with substance use during pregnancy.
https://bmcpsychiatry.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12888-021-03078-5

Child Maltreatment – Prenatal Substance Exposure and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review
State and federal policies regarding substance use in pregnancy, specifically whether a notification to child protective services is required, continue to evolve. To inform practice, policy, and future research, we sought to synthesize and critically evaluate the existing literature regarding the association of prenatal substance exposure with child maltreatment.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1077559521990116?casa_token=Yp5oVPhQyCQAAAAA%3A1ElEHiIu0GxRsvQ3KNP8jbhEEzt9SlEYDLbiJtrn6SBDfzANJmBNpqu95AkjScz0YWrdM-duBWixIVE

Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Timing of mortality in mothers with recurrent convictions for driving under the influence of alcohol and their children, from childbirth to child age 17
Severe maternal AUD, as characterized by rDUI, increases the risk for child mortality over that of Controls through age 17. Delays in rDUI maternal mortality until child age 6 may indicate a period when maternal referral for intervention to reduce harm to child and mother is likely to be especially effective.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0376871621001150?casa_token=cpaPrBqAepYAAAAA:Ki6Q0ugPbTCv6JNPJiHocS0IIRR8u8Qc4jCDLh9dZty1IE-X_ax7hZQ-JCqt18mBEE_0rj1sbFv1

Public health nursing – Intimate partner violence, prenatal stress, and substance use among pregnant Black women
Perceived stress during pregnancy partially mediated the association between previous experience of IPV and marijuana use among pregnant Black women. Interventions are needed to reduce IPV that would lower stress during pregnancy and consequently substance abuse to improve pregnancy outcomes and maternal and newborn health.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33590543/

Public Health Reports – Discordance Between Perinatal Alcohol Use Among Women and Provider Counseling for Alcohol Use: An Assessment of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
Disparities in alcohol counseling occurred despite the national recommendation for universal screening and counseling prenatally. Continued integration of universal screening for alcohol use during pregnancy is needed.
https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0033354920984146?casa_token=NR0T-oHJeh0AAAAA%3Am8mlQ41vFCl1Z-J_98lXq3uGQtggnrWzh3uw42G25z1Oi7FzZHEmzTTYiT06WcvUSl4UTMMxzVCwC5Q