Much of the following research is provided courtesy of EUFASD for which we are grateful.
25 September 2022
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – MicroRNA-150-5p is upregulated in the brain microvasculature during prenatal alcohol exposure and inhibits the angiogenic factor Vezf1
miR-150-5p regulation of Vezf1 results in altered endothelial cell function during alcohol exposure. Further, miR-150-5p inhibition of Vezf1 may adversely alter the development of the cortical microvasculature during PAE and contribute to deficits seen in patients with FASD.
Child & Family Social Work – ‘It’s rewarding because I get the love’: Grandparents raising grandchildren with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Grandparents raising their grandchildren with FASD face challenges and thus require specific supports so that they may adequately provide a safe and nurturing home environment for children with often challenging learning and social needs.
Ophthalmic Epidemiology – Eye Abnormalities in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review
Examination of eyes and vision should be considered in children with PAE and suspected or diagnosed FASD to enable early identification and optimal management.
Canada.ca – Evidence synthesis – Accuracy of administrative database algorithms for autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder case ascertainment: a systematic review
There is some evidence to suggest that cases of ASD and ADHD can be identified using administrative data; however, studies that assessed the ability of algorithms to discriminate reliably between cases with and without the condition of interest were lacking. No evidence exists for FASD.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders – Comparative Analysis of Physical Traits of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa and the United States and the Likelihood of FASD Births
The prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in recent years was 29% among children in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and 6.5% in four regions of the United States.
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – The impact of prenatal alcohol and/or tobacco exposure on brain structure in a large sample of children from a South African birth cohort
PAE was associated with reduction in structure of the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for learning and memory. PTE had stronger and broader associations, including with regions associated with executive function, reward processing, and emotional regulation, potentially reflecting continued postnatal exposure to tobacco (i.e., second-hand smoke exposure).
Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – Early developmental alcohol exposure alters behavioral outcomes following adolescent re-exposure in a rat model
These results indicate that combined exposure to alcohol during these two critical periods reduces anxiety-related behaviors and/or increases risk taking in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that prenatal alcohol exposure may affect risk for emotional consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder – Alcohol Use Screening in Pregnant and Childbearing Aged Women: Practices and Implications
Increased use of these strategies would reduce risk of adverse outcomes to women and their children, decrease new cases of FASD and recurrence of FASD in families, and thus would improve maternal and child health.
American Journal of Perinatology – The Impact of Self-Reported Alcohol, Tobacco, and Recreational Drug Use during Pregnancy on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in First-Time Mothers
Trajectories of substance use are associated with APOs; thus, interventions to mitigate the use when encountered early in pregnancy are warranted.
Int J Environ Res Public Health – Preventing Drift through Continued Co-Design with a First Nations Community: Refining the Prototype of a Tiered FASD Assessment
This study emphasised the benefit of continued co-design to ensure health implementation strategies match the needs of the community.
Alcohol – Ethanol sustains phosphorylated tau protein in the cultured neonatal rat hippocampus: Implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
This is the first study to show that ethanol exposure sustains tau Threonine231 phosphorylation in the perinatal hippocampus regardless of Total Tau expression.
14 Sep 2022
Cureus – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in a Newborn. Our objective was to evaluate a three-day-old male infant born at 37 weeks gestation via vaginal delivery to a mother with admitted excessive alcohol intake for FASD. On physical appearance, the newborn had evidence of smooth philtrum and thin vermillion border, which are two of the three cardinal facial characteristics for dysmorphology.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and access to Regional Center Services in San Diego County
The 6.9% prevalence estimate among Regional Center clients was higher than the prevalence estimate of 2.3% in the same community among 5–7-year-old children in the general population.
African Journal of Reproductive Health – Barriers and facilitators of alcohol abstinence during pregnancy
There is a limited understanding of why pregnant women drink in the South African context, particularly in rural settings, where the prevalence of FASD is highest.
City University of Seattle – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Examining How School Counsellors Can Support Students Diagnosed with FASD Through Life Skills and Social-Emotional Learning. The research question I will addressed in this capstone is: How can school counsellors support students diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder through life skills and social-emotional learning?
SSRN – Maternal Alcoholism Affects Cell Lineage in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. These results suggest that pathways implicated in cell determination were affected by PEE and remained affect in adulthood.
Laurier – “The system is not set up for individuals with FASD”: Lived and Caregiver Perspectives Regarding Current and Ideal Housing Supports for Canadian Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. This study offers insight into the perspectives of adults with FASD regarding their daily living support, which is critical to inform future supported housing and support self-determination.
AAIDD – The Strengths and Positive Influences of Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
This study is the first to examine strengths and positive influences of young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
Drug and Alcohol Review – Evaluation outcomes of an alcohol and pregnancy campaign targeting multiple audiences. Results indicate the campaign was well received by respondents, increased concern about drinking alcohol during pregnancy and positively influenced women’s intentions to refrain from drinking while pregnant.
Biomedicines – Sex-Related Differences in Voluntary Alcohol Intake and mRNA Coding for Synucleins in the Brain of Adult Rats Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol. These findings indicate that the impact of PAE on transcriptional regulation of synucleins may be sex-dependent, and in males’ disruption in α-synuclein mRNA expression may contribute to increased vulnerability to alcohol-associated behavior.
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy – Effectiveness of a practice change intervention in reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women attending public maternity services. Special occasion drinking was reduced following implementation of guideline-recommended care. Failure to change other patterns of alcohol use in pregnancy may reflect barriers to implementing the model of care in antenatal care settings and the need to address other social determinants of alcohol use.
Child Psychiatry & Human Development – Characteristics of the Symptoms of the Proposed ND-PAE Disorder in First Grade Children in a Community Sample. The proposed symptoms for Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) were evaluated in children who participated in the Collaboration on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence study.
Dialogues in Health – Prevention of alcohol related harm though preconception care: A scoping review of barriers and enablers. Investment in alcohol education and skills training for healthcare professionals is required to ensure a coherent message is communicated across services, and that shared decision making about healthcare between service users and health professionals is facilitated.
Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences – Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and its association with Fetal Outcome in a Mountainous District of Nepal. The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was seen in one out of three mothers. Mothers were at the highest risk of delivering low birth weight babies if they had a binge alcohol consumption pattern.
Frontiers – How the alcohol industry fought against pregnancy warning labels in France. A press coverage analysis spanning 20 years. This study fills a gap in the Anglosphere research on lobbying against alcohol warnings by analyzing lobbyists’ arguments over a 20-year period covering both failed and successful industry lobbying.
Qualitative Health Research – Researching Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy. Opportunities and Challenges With Two Methods of Data Acquisition. These results have implications for research about female substance use. Knowledge of the issues will bestow a valuable contribution to researchers working in the field of substance use to help develop appropriate research approaches, as they engage in research into this highly stigmatized and controversial area.
29 Aug 2022
Brain Sciences – Dose-Related Reduction in Hippocampal Neuronal Populations in Fetal Alcohol Exposed Vervet Monkeys
This study illustrates that neuroanatomical sequelae of fetal ethanol exposure are dose-responsive and suggests that there may be a threshold for this effect.
Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology – A-139 Language and Communication Skills in Children with Different Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Diagnoses
Children with FASD have language deficits on objective measures and parent ratings, which should be a focus of intervention.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – The prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in rural communities in South Africa: A third regional sample of child characteristics and maternal risk factors
The prevalence of FASD remained a significant problem in this region, but the severity of physical traits and anomalies within the continuum of FASD is trending downwards.
Nutrients – Dietary Intake Patterns and Lifestyle Behaviors of Pregnant Women Living in a Manitoba First Nations Community: Implications for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
The findings of this study lay a fundamental premise for the development of community nutrition programs, nutrition education, and nutrition intervention, such as community specific prenatal supplementation. These will assist in ensuring adequate maternal nutrient intake and benefit families and communities in Northern Manitoba with and without alcohol insult.
Brain and Development – Fetal alcohol syndrome and the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders: A longitudinal cohort study. Tens of thousands of American children with lifetime costs in the billions of US dollars were estimated to be impacted by FAS-associated NDs. These impacts are particularly tragic because FAS is dependent upon lifestyle.
BMJ Open – Effect of maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy on birth weight and cardiometabolic risk factors in infants, children and adolescents: a systematic review protocol. Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy are particularly prevalent in low socioeconomic status populations, with an adverse association with birth outcomes and cardiometabolic risk factors.
BMJ Open – Iterative delivery of an implementation support package to increase and sustain the routine provision of antenatal care addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy: study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster trial. Antenatal care addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy is not routinely delivered in maternity services. Although a number of implementation trials have reported significant increases in such care, the majority of women still did not receive all recommended care elements, and improvements dissipated over time.
Alcohol – Ethanol sustains phosphorylated tau protein in the cultured neonatal rat hippocampus: Implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. This is the first study to show that EtOH exposure sustains tau Threonine231 phosphorylation in the perinatal hippocampus regardless of total tau expression.
Pediatric Research – Early developmental trajectory of children with prenatal alcohol and opioid exposure
Observed decline in neurodevelopmental scores during the first 2 years of life emphasizes the importance of a longitudinal approach when evaluating children with prenatal polysubstance exposure.
Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders – Maternal Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: a Meta-analysis. A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the possible association between maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in offspring.
Alcohol – Vinpocetine a PDE1 modulator regulates markers of cerebral health, inflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of prenatal alcohol-induced experimental attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This study provides preliminary analysis and suggests that PDE1 enzyme maybe an important pharmacological tool to study ADHD as a result of PAE.
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior – An intergenerational lifespan perspective on the neuroscience of prenatal substance exposure. Prenatal substance exposure has the potential to impact a variety of domains, with neurobiological effects that last throughout the lifespan.
8 August 2022
The Honestly Adoption Company – FASD Expert Spotlight (Part 1): FASDs And The Online World
We know that Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders have a profound effect on a person’s ability to reason, think logically, and control impulses. But in today’s society there are extra dangers.
The Honestly Adoption Company – FASD Expert Spotlight (Part 2): FASD Hope And Advocacy
We are excited to share an interview we did just a few years ago with Natalie Vecchione, on her podcast, FASD Hope. We primarily talked about the release of our latest book, Securely Attached, but wanted to share this interview and point our listeners toward this valuable resource.
FASD Special Interest Group – Diagnosing FASD Part 1 of 2. In the August 3, 2022 meeting of the AUCD FASD SIG, Christie Petrenko of University of Rochester and Elizabeth Cleveland of University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences discuss how their FASD diagnostic clinics started and how they function.
The Adoption & Foster Care Journey – Episode 335 – Run FASD with Adult Adoptee Rebecca Tillou. On this episode host Sandra Flach talks with Rebecca Tillou. Rebecca is an adult adoptee with FASD, she’s also a wife, mother, author, advocate, and runner – AND the visionary of Run FASD.
FASD Hope – 142 – Amazing Advocacy – A Conversation with Yvonne Williams
Episode 142 is titled “Amazing Advocacy” and highlights Yvonne Williams and her incredible advocacy contributions to the FASD Community. Yvonne started her FASD journey when she adopted her daughter in 2007.
Fasd Success Show – #117 Rhonda & Shawn: How to love someone with FASD who’s hurt someone. This unique episode has some critical information about how systemic barriers and failures can result in adverse outcomes for individuals with FASD. We will leave the detail for the episode, but we want to give you a general idea about the content.
SACCounty Healthy Beginnings – 5 Things You Need to Know If You’re Raising a Child Who’s Been Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Watch the video to learn about the 5 things every parent needs to know if you’re raising a child who’s been affected by prenatal exposure to alcohol.
Catch Collaborative Psychotherapy – Episode 10 | What We Know About Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) causes harm, pain and shame in mothers and children. Society is critical and judgmental towards those suffering from the condition, even though 1 in 100 babies in Canada are born with it.
National FASD – Raja and Neil’s FASD Book Club – Session 2, Standardising the Approach to Assessment and Diagnosis. In session 2 of Raja and Neil’s FASD book club, Prof Raja Mukherjee and Dr Neil Aiton give an overview of changes in FASD diagnosis over the past 50 years. They talk about new diagnostic changes in the UK and point out some areas where progress is still needed.
Learning with FASD – How to create a supportive learning environment for primary aged children with FASD
Students affected by FASD may learn and behave differently to neurotypical children due to the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure. The challenges that students with FASD may experience in the school environment can be due to the neurodevelopmental impairments caused by their brain injury.
24 July 2022
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience – Decreased resting-state alpha peak frequency in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders or prenatal alcohol exposure. Reduced APF in individuals with an FASD/PAE may represent a long-term deficit and demonstrates the detrimental impact prenatal alcohol exposure can have on neurophysiological processes.
Aotearoa New Zealand Social Work – We are not doing enough for children with neuro-disabilities
I recently made a submission to the Abuse in Care: Royal Commission of Inquiry on behalf of a young whānau-member survivor who is autistic and lives with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and mental health issues.
Neuroscience Informatics – A transcriptome meta-analysis of ethanol embryonic exposure: Implications in neurodevelopment and neuroinflammatory genees. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ethanol in the differential gene expression (DGE) of embryonic cells and fetal tissues by performing a transcriptome meta-analysis in microarrays datasets publicly available.
Women’s Health – Racial/ethnic variations in alcohol and cigarette use by pregnancy status among 20- to 44-year-old women, NHANES 2001–2018. Women who may become pregnant need interventions and improved policy to prevent alcohol use and smoking. Culturally appropriate alcohol and smoking cessation interventions before pregnancy and improved contraception access are needed.
Midwifery – WRISK voices: A mixed-methods study of women’s experiences of pregnancy-related public health advice and risk messages in the UK. Our research shows the importance of risk communication that respects women’s autonomy and trusts them to make decisions about their own pregnancy. We identified a need for a layered approach to risk communication.
Drug and Alcohol Review – Written information and health professionals are the information sources about alcohol use in pregnancy most often used by pregnant women. Antenatal providers should routinely provide information on alcohol use in pregnancy, including for women least likely to access available information.
SSRN – Impact of Two Different Rodent Diets on Rat Dam Voluntary Ethanol Consumption, Serum Ethanol Concentrations and Pregnancy Outcome Measures. Recent studies report varying levels of voluntary ethanol consumption by rodents maintained on different commercially available diets.
Journal of Biomedical Optics – Photonics probing of pup brain tissue and molecular-specific nuclear nanostructure alterations due to fetal alcoholism via light scattering/localization approaches. In particular, we characterize the spatial pup brain structures from the molecular to tissue levels and address the plausible reasons for such as mass density fluctuations in fetal alcoholism.
Discover Social Science and Health – Prevalence and associated factors of alcohol intake in the first trimester of pregnancy in Dabat district, northwest Ethiopia. The prevalence of alcohol consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy was high in the study area. Pregnant women’s’ sociodemogrphic characteristics and history of stillbirth are associated with alcohol consumption.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Planning is not equivalent to preparing, how Dutch women perceive their pregnancy planning in relation to preconceptional lifestyle behaviour change – a cross-sectional study
Despite consciously planning their pregnancy, most women did not adhere to preconceptional lifestyle behaviour recommendations. Women’s health beliefs and overestimation of their health status seem to interfere with actively planning and preparing for pregnancy.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology – Impact of maternal substance use on offspring’s cardiovascular health
Substance use (SU) during pregnancy is on the rise, posing significant risks to the developing fetus. The adverse impact of maternal alcohol and nicotine use during the perinatal period on offspring health has been well established, including their associations with adverse cardiovascular health in offspring.
PLoS one – Binge alcohol drinking before pregnancy is closely associated with the development of macrosomia: Korean pregnancy registry cohort. Together, binge drinking before pregnancy might be an independent risk factor for developing macrosomia. Intensified intervention for drinking alcohol in women who are planning a pregnancy is important and may help prevent macrosomia.
The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior – Fathers are accused by family court when pregnant partners use substances. A new study has found that, in some states, fathers lose their parental rights, and legal orphans are created, when fathers are accused of allowing their pregnant partners to use alcohol or drugs.
Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Suicidality: What Does the Literature Tell Us? This review provides a foundational understanding of suicidality in FASD with important implications for research, policy, and practice. Rates of suicidality across the lifespan are high, underscoring the need for evidence-based approaches to screening, prevention, and treatment.
10 July 2022
Birth Defects Research – Abnormal growth and morphogenesis of placenta at term is linked to adverse fetal development after perigestational alcohol consumption up to early gestation in mouse. Perigestational alcohol consumption up to early gestation induces at term fetal growth alterations, dysmorphology and defective skeleton, linked to deficient growth and abnormal morphogenesis of placenta, highlighting insight into the prenatal etiology of FASD.
Neurobiology of Disease – In utero alcohol exposure impairs vessel-associated positioning and differentiation of oligodendrocytes in the developing neocortex. Altogether, these data suggest that alcohol-induced oligo-vascular impairments contribute to the neurodevelopmental issues described in FASD.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – The Alcohol Industry and Social Responsibility: Links to FASD. We consider the place of alcohol in society; the prevalence, social and economic costs of FASD; the ethical notion of alcohol-related harm and then move onto the question of public health partnerships with the industry including the potential conflicts of interests and ethical challenges in such partnerships.
Scientific Reports – Reduced and delayed myelination and volume of corpus callosum in an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders partially benefit from voluntary exercise
In line with clinical findings, we have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to hypomyelination of the corpus callosum in adolescence and that the severity of damage is sexually dimorphic. Further, exercise intervention improves corpus callosum growth in alcohol-exposed and control rats in adolescence.
Brain Sciences – ERK1/2 Signalling Pathway Regulates Tubulin-Binding Cofactor B Expression and Affects Astrocyte Process Formation after Acute Foetal Alcohol Exposure
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a spectrum of neurological disorders whose neurological symptoms, besides the neuronal damage caused by alcohol, may also be associated with neuroglial damage.
Ethics & Behavior – Beyond the bump: ethical and legal considerations for psychologists providing services to pregnant individuals who use substances. This article presents the ethical and legal issues that may arise in working with this population within the framework of the American Psychological Association’s (APA) Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2017).
ResearchSquare – Effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for pregnant women: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. BIs are moderately effective in increasing abstinence during pregnancy and preventing preterm birth. More studies on the effectiveness of BIs are needed from low- and middle-income countries, as well as with younger mothers and with a broader range of ethnic groups.
Current Nutrition Reports – Pregnancy as a Fundamental Determinant of Child Health: a Review
Maternal diet is potentially a modifiable risk factor for controlling low birth weight, obesity and chronic disease in childhood. Further studies are warranted to refine guidance on dietary restriction and physical activity during pregnancy and determine how MIA and prenatal microbiota can be applied to control childhood diseases arising from programming.
Health Promotion Practice – Equitable Policies Need Equitable Practices: Alcohol- and Substance-Exposed Pregnancy as a Case Study. There is clear need for more effective public health policies. Coupled with calls for more effective policies, increasing demand to address public health disparities experienced by systemically marginalized and historically oppressed groups emphasizes the long-standing need for policies that improve public health equity.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences – Exposure to Toxicants Affects Everyone, Especially the Very Young
Toxicology is an incredibly complex and diverse area of biomedical science that includes numerous areas of specialization. The overarching goals for investigators working in all areas of toxicology are to identify and define the exposures to potential toxicants, assess the risks, and mitigate the impacts.
Scientific Reports – The alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzyme (ADH I) as a marker of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is an important pregnancy liver disorder. The alterations of different enzymes activity in the hepatocytes in the course of liver diseases are reflected in an increase in the activity of the corresponding enzymes in the blood.
26 June 2022
Brain Sciences – Binge-like Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Causes Impaired Cellular Differentiation in the Embryonic Forebrain and Synaptic and Behavioral Defects in Adult Mice. An embryo’s in-utero exposure to ethanol due to a mother’s alcohol drinking results in a range of deficits in the child that are collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs).
Brain Sciences – Autism Spectrum Disorder and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Literature Review. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are a group of conditions associated with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and characterized by somatic and neuropsychological alterations. On the other hand, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by a multifaceted neurobehavioral syndrome.
Early Human Development – The contribution of the Neurobehavioral Screening Tool to identifying fetal alcohol spectrum disorders in children at high risk of prenatal alcohol exposure and neurobehavioral deficits. Our findings regarding the screening capabilities of the NST were less promising than those of most previous studies. Further research is needed to establish a valid neurobehavioral tool with the possible focus on antisocial behaviors and emotional regulation problems.
Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Suicidality: What Does the Literature Tell Us? This review provides a foundational understanding of suicidality in FASD with important implications for research, policy, and practice. Rates of suicidality across the lifespan are high, underscoring the need for evidence-based approaches to screening, prevention, and treatment.
Birth Defects Research – Prenatal alcohol exposure can be determined from baby teeth: Proof of concept
This proof-of-concept study demonstrates for the first time that direct biomarkers of PAE are detectable and measurable in deciduous teeth which begin forming in utero and are typically naturally shed between 5 and 12 years of age.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Effects of prenatal alcohol and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol exposure via electronic cigarettes on motor development
These data suggest that prenatal cannabis exposure may lead to impaired motor skills throughout early development, and that combined exposure with alcohol during gestation may also lead to hyperactivity in early adolescence.
Child Abuse Review – Responses to prenatal opioid and alcohol abuse: A review of US and Australian mandatory reporting laws. Prenatal substance use, specifically opioid and excessive alcohol use, can cause significant adverse effects for the unborn foetus in both the short-and long-term.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Maternal binge alcohol consumption leads to distinctive acute perturbations in embryonic cardiac gene expression profiles. These findings identify Wnt7a and a short list of potential other candidate genes and pathways for further study, which could provide mechanistic insights into how maternal binge alcohol consumption produces congenital cardiac malformations.
Archives of Women’s Mental Health – Alcohol use during pregnancy: findings from a gender-based violence survey in Mongolia
This study aimed to explore the risk factors for alcohol use during pregnancy in Mongolia, wherein high-risk alcohol use is prevalent. We analyzed nationwide data from the Gender-Based Violence (GBV) Survey of Mongolia conducted in 2017.
Current Developments in Nutrition – Choline Metabolism Gene-Exposure Interactions in Fetal Alcohol-related Memory Deficits. We identified two maternal SNPs that may confer higher fetal risk for teratogenic effects of PAE. These findings support the potential protective role of choline in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders prevention.
Current Developments in Nutrition – Influence of Maternal Choline Supplementation on Metabolic Outcomes of Offspring With Prenatal and Postnatal Alcohol Exposures. In the current model, PAE does not seem to exacerbate metabolic differences triggered by postnatal alcohol exposure. Maternal choline supplementation has a modest effect on normalizing liver metabolic gene expression that is altered by alcohol exposure.
Journal of Orthodontics – The effect of maternal smoking and alcohol consumption on lip morphology
Maternal smoking influences a number of lip traits, including a possible epigenetic effect on upper lip contour. Maternal alcohol consumption, particularly at a high level, influences philtrum shape. Maternal smoking and alcohol consumption have a combined effect on lower lip contour and lower lip-chin shape.
Curtin University – The Influence of Prenatal Alcohol and Tobacco Exposures on Offspring Mental Health and Substance Use Outcomes
Using meta-analytical approaches and multi-generational birth cohort data extracted from the Raine Study, we found that prenatal alcohol and tobacco exposures were associated with increased risks of mental health and substance use problems in offspring.
Advances in Social Work – Maternal Substance Use Disorder – A Look at Provider Stigma, Attitudes, and Beliefs
Pregnant women with substance use disorder (SUD) can face varying degrees of negative interactions with healthcare providers, including judgment of the individual’s value and involvement in their infant’s care.
12 June 2022
Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology – Lived experiences of adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Findings illustrated the barriers adolescents experienced regarding their daily functioning and independence. Additionally, incorporating strengths into daily activities appeared to reduce anxiety and improve participation, and adolescents desired for their unique characteristics to be recognized and appreciated.
Journal of Intellectual Disabilities – Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Towards Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in New Zealand Educators: An Online Survey. There is a need to improve workforce capacity and develop guidelines that address the needs of front-of-line staff working with children with FASD in education settings.
Journal of Pediatric Neuropsychology – Identification of Seminal Physical Features of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure by Child Psychologists. This study demonstrated that child psychologists, blind to PAE history, could be reliably trained to assess the physical features of children with PAE.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Facial imaging to screen for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A scoping review. This scoping review describes the current state of evidence regarding the use of facial imaging being as a screening tool for FASD at a community level.
Preprints with The Lancet – Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Risk of Morbidities Not Previously Identified: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study from 1996 to 2018. In addition to the 428 previously suggested FASD-related comorbidities, we found 719 conditions with an incidence of ≥ 0·1% among children with prenatal heavy alcohol exposure of which 32 had a standardized risk difference ≥ 1·0% and 143 conditions had a crude absolute risk ratio ≥ 2·5.
Children’s Health Care – Longitudinal effect of prenatal polydrug use and birthweight status on pediatric growth
Maternal drug use causes low birthweight but less is known about longer-term pediatric growth. The purpose of this analysis was to longitudinally measure anthropometric growth among children exposed to drugs in utero.
European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology – Periconceptual and prenatal alcohol consumption and neurodevelopment at age two and five years. We did not find strong evidence of associations between pre-pregnancy and early pregnancy maternal alcohol consumption and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at age two and five years overall.
Repositorio Comillas – Alcohol and pregnancy – contributions from an international research team. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a worldwide public health problem, considered as a risk factor for development while associated with a set of physical, neurological and behavioral consequences in children exposed in utero.
British Journal of Midwifery – Fetal alcohol screening and ethics. George F Winter explores maternal alcohol consumption and the moral and clinical influences that govern advice on drinking alcohol during pregnancy
Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Health care provider decision-making around prenatal substance use reporting
Many of the factors that influence physician decision-making in reporting pregnant/birthing people who use AOD to CPS are outside the control of individual physicians and require social, structural, and policy changes.
Texto & Contexto – VULNERABILITY OF PREGNANT WOMEN USING ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS IN LOW-RISK PRENATAL CARE. The study made it possible to advance in the contexts of the vulnerability of these pregnant women. Recognizing these contexts makes it possible to formulate strategies to reduce harm and damages to maternal and fetal health related to drug use during pregnancy, leading to a favorable gestational outcome.
29 May 2022
BMC Women’s Health – Assessment of alcohol utilization during pregnancy and its associated factors among reproductive women in Mecha Woreda of North Western Ethiopia. The result inferred that there is a high level of alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Due to the differences in the culture and communal means of drinking alcohol, the frequency of alcohol consumption during pregnancy varies among different regional studies and countries.
Experimental Neurology – The maternal-placental-fetal interface: Adaptations of the HPA axis and immune mediators following maternal stress and prenatal alcohol exposure. This review addresses underlying physiological, cellular, and molecular factors that alter the developing fetal brain stress circuits and responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis caused by maternal stress and prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE).
Alcohol – Proceedings of the 2021 Annual Meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group
The 2021 meeting of the Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Study Group (FASDSG) was titled “Role of Parental Experiences in Offspring Outcomes.”
Journal of Occupational Science – “Doing together”: Mothers use co-occupation to scaffold the occupational engagement of their children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
South Africa has the highest reported prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) worldwide. This paper describes the contribution mothers make to engage their children with FASD in occupations through ‘doing together’.
Human Brain Mapping – Trajectories of brain white matter development in young children with prenatal alcohol exposure
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with alterations to brain white matter microstructure. Previous studies of PAE have demonstrated different findings in young children compared to older children and adolescents, suggesting altered developmental trajectories and highlighting the need for longitudinal research.
Current Research in Toxicology – The Influence of Maternal Weight and Alcohol Exposure on Infant Physical Characteristics and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes. Higher postpartum maternal weight may be a protective factor but does not eliminate the adverse effects of alcohol on infant growth and dysmorphology.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – The impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on gray matter volume and cortical surface area of 2-3 year old children in a South African birth cohort
Findings from this subgroup scanned at age 2 – 3 years build on previously described subcortical volume differences in neonates from this cohort. Findings suggest that PAE persistently affects gray matter development through the critical early years of life.
Acta Neuropathologica Communications – Oligodendrocyte lineage is severely affected in human alcohol-exposed foetuses. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a major cause of neurobehavioral disabilities. MRI studies in humans have shown that alcohol is associated with white matter microstructural anomalies but these studies focused on myelin abnormalities only after birth.
Journal of Hypertension – Associations of maternal periconceptional alcohol consumption with offspring prehypertension/hypertension at age 6 years: the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes prospective mother-offspring cohort study. Maternal self-reported alcohol consumption at least 1.9 g/day prior to pregnancy recognition was associated with increased risk of child prehypertension and rapid kidney growth.
Maternal and Child Health Journal – Pregnant and Postpartum People with Substance Use Disorders: Understanding the Obstetrical Care Provider’ s Roles and Responsibilities. Peripartum individuals with substance misuse are a high-risk population that challenge clinicians and child welfare specialists alike.
Supplement Series B: Biomedical Chemistry – Prenatal Exposure to Alcohol Alters TLR4 Mediated Signaling in the Prefrontal Cortex in Rats. Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to developmental disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) and mental retardation.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – High-resolution diffusion tensor imaging identifies hippocampal volume loss without diffusion changes in individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure. Reductions of hippocampal volumes and altered relationships with memory suggest disrupted hippocampal development in PAE.
Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research – Self-reported alcohol consumption of pregnant women and their partners correlates both before and during pregnancy: A cohort study with 21,472 singleton pregnancies
The self-reported alcohol consumption of pregnant women and their partners was positively correlated both before and during pregnancy, though the correlation declined substantially during pregnancy.
Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions – Incarcerated pregnant women and substance use a conversation with Thomas P. LeBel, PhD
West Virginia University – Preconception substance use and risk of unintended pregnancy
Findings of our two studies in a large representative sample of US women suggest that substance and polysubstance use during the preconception period significantly increases the likelihood of unintended pregnancy.
15 May 2022
BMC Medical Research Methodology – Minimizing sample bias due to stigmatized behaviours: the representativeness of participants in a cohort study of alcohol in pregnancy. The use of passive consent without disclosure of the specific research focus resulted in a high level of sample provision. There was no evidence that study blinding was breached, and women who provided a sample were more likely to report alcohol consumption.
NEUROSCIENCE HONORS PAPERS – Dopaminergic Axon Development in Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. This project investigates the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on dopaminergic axon development. Using both a wildtype mouse and fractalkine receptor knockout mouse, we also consider the role of fractalkine signaling in a vapor alcohol exposure paradigm.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Stability and change in the interpretation of facial emotions in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders from childhood to adolescence. Individuals with full FAS have greater difficulty interpreting facial emotions than nonsyndromal HE and healthy controls in both childhood and adolescence. By contrast, RME deficits in individuals with PFAS in childhood represent developmental delay.
Journal: Handbook of Substance Misuse and Addictions – Prenatal illicit drug and polysubstance exposure and impact on developmental outcome
South African Journal of Psychology – Fetal alcohol syndrome knowledge and risk behaviors among university students and community residents in Limpopo, South Africa. The Republic of South Africa has the highest documented fetal alcohol syndrome prevalence globally. In the Limpopo province, little is known about students’ or community members’ knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder rates and risk behaviors.
Neurotoxicity Research – The Combined Effects of Perinatal Ethanol and Early-Life Stress on Cognition and Risk-Taking Behavior through Oxidative Stress in Rats
In this study, we examined the effect of combined exposure to ethanol and early stress on maternal care, exploratory behavior, memory performances, and oxidative stress in male offspring.
Midwifery – Women’s views and experiences of occasional alcohol consumption during pregnancy: A systematic review of qualitative studies and their recommendations. Our review provides evidence that information on the issue of alcohol consumption during pregnancy should be improved in both qualitative and quantitative terms. However, the reasons for pregnant women’s occasional drinking are complex and influenced by a range of socio-cultural factors.
Nutrients – Prenatal Choline Supplementation Alters One Carbon Metabolites in a Rat Model of Periconceptional Alcohol Exposure. Prenatal alcohol exposure disturbs fetal and placental growth and can alter DNA methylation (DNAm). Supplementation with the methyl donor choline can increase fetal and placental growth and restore DNAm, suggesting converging effects on one-carbon metabolism (1CM).
Scientific Studies of Reading – Reading Impairment in Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
These results are consistent with research showing that reading comprehension in adolescence relies increasingly on linguistic comprehension abilities, especially once word reading becomes automatic and text complexity increases.
International Journal of Clinical Practice – Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Risk of Depression in Offspring: a Meta-Analysis
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been related to poor consequences of mental health in offspring. However, it remains unknown whether maternal alcohol drinking during pregnancy is associated with depression in the offspring.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Practice change intervention to improve antenatal care addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy: a randomised stepped-wedge controlled trial. The practice change intervention improved the provision of antenatal care addressing alcohol consumption during pregnancy in public maternity services.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Key Stakeholder Priorities for the Review and Update of the Australian Guide to Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Descriptive Study
Since the 2016 release of the Australian Guide to the Diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), considerable progress has been made in the identification and diagnosis of the disorder. As part of a larger process to review and update the Guide, the aim of this study was to identify review priorities from a broad range of stakeholders involved in the assessment and diagnosis of FASD.
24 Apr 2022
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior – Prenatal and adolescent alcohol exposure programs immunity across the lifespan: CNS-mediated regulation
Recognizing that alcohol consumption across the entire body, we argue in favor of integrative, whole-organism approaches toward understanding alcohol effects on immune function, and highlight the need for more work specifically examining long-lasting effects of early developmental exposure to alcohol (prenatal and adolescent periods) on host immunity.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Is Public Health Response to the Phenomenon of Alcohol Use during Pregnancy Adequate to the Polish Women’s Needs?
Due to the risks it poses to a child’s health, drinking alcohol during pregnancy is a serious problem that the public health sector is struggling to deal with. The reasons why women who do not have alcohol problems do not give up drinking alcohol completely during pregnancy are still poorly understood. And the knowledge available about them does not translate into communication strategies in Poland.
Current Developmental Disorders Report – Toward a Strengths-Based Cognitive Profile of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Implications for Intervention. Identifying areas of relative strength provides promising avenues for intervention. Future research should explore areas of intact functioning and relative strength among children with FASD more explicitly, alongside areas of difficulty.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Influence of COMT (rs4680) and DRD2 (rs1076560, rs1800497) Gene Polymorphisms on Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The MPH treatment is effective in ADHD independent of FASD, although the ADHD-FASD variant requires higher doses to be successful. These results may help in optimization and individualization in child psychiatry.
Pediatric Research – Prenatal smoking and drinking are associated with altered newborn autonomic functions
These findings highlight potential ANS pathways through which prenatal drinking and smoking may contribute to neurodevelopment outcomes. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41390-022-02060-5
Journal of Affective Disorders – Mood and neurotic disorders among youth with prenatal substance exposure: A longitudinal register-based cohort study. Mood and neurotic disorders are more common following prenatal exposure to substances and interlinked with significant adversities in the postnatal caregiving environment and OHC.
Nutrients – Gestational Iron Supplementation Improves Fetal Outcomes in a Rat Model of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
These data show that gestational iron supplementation improves select fetal outcomes in prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) including brain weight and hematology, suggesting that this may be a clinically feasible approach to improve prenatal iron status and fetal outcomes in alcohol-exposed pregnancies.
Journal of Medical Internet Research – Effectiveness of Digital Interventions for Preventing Alcohol Consumption in Pregnancy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Overall, our review highlights the potential for digital interventions to prevent alcohol consumption among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant.
Birth Defects Research – The pro-apoptotic Bax gene modifies susceptibility to craniofacial dysmorphology following gastrulation-stage alcohol exposure. Overall, these experiments identify that Bax is a primary teratogenic mechanism of gastrulation-stage alcohol exposure.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Sex, Gender, and Alcohol Use: Implications for Women and Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines. We conclude that supporting and expanding the development of sex- and gender-specific low-risk drinking guidelines offers more nuanced and educative information to clinicians and consumers and will particularly benefit women and girls.
Neurotoxicity Research – Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, and Antiapoptotic Action of Metformin Attenuates Ethanol Neurotoxicity in the Animal Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Fetal alcohol exposure has permanent effects on the brain structure, leading to functional deficits in several aspects of behavior, including learning and memory.
Clinical Psychology Review – Aggressive behaviour and violence in children and adolescents with FASD: A synthesizing review. Interpretation and response to behaviour is predicated on understanding. However, our present understanding of aggressive behaviour, especially for complex and vulnerable populations is limited.
14 Apr 2022
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Magnitude comparison and automaticity in number processing in adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure: An event-related potentials study. These findings suggest that magnitude comparison in alcohol-exposed individuals may be mediated by recruitment of alternative neural pathways that are likely to be inefficient when number processing becomes more challenging.
Malta Medical Students’ Association – Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders and imaging : a brief review
Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) refers to the collection of features seen as a result of prenatal alcohol exposure by the mother. FASD can be considered as an acquired brain injury, predominantly affecting neurocognitive development, amongst other organ systems.
Alcohol – Purkinje cell-specific deletion of CREB worsens alcohol-induced cerebellar neuronal losses and motor deficits. Disruption of a single gene (CREB) in a single neuronal population (Purkinje cells) greatly increases the vulnerability of that cell population to alcohol-induced cell death and worsens alcohol-induced brain dysfunction.
American Journal of Medical Genetics – Characteristic physical traits of first-grade children in the United States with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and associated alcohol and drug exposures. We compared growth, physical features, and minor anomalies in 131 first-grade children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) to those of a representative comparison group of typically developing children from the same populations (n = 1212).
Nutrients – Aging-Related Behavioral, Adiposity, and Glucose Impairments and Their Association following Prenatal Alcohol Exposure in the C57BL/6J Mouse. People that experience prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have behavioral and metabolic impairments, and it is unclear whether these remain stable or change with age. We assessed behavioral and metabolic endpoints across the lifespan in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
Clinical Psychology Review – Aggressive behaviour and violence in children and adolescents with FASD: A synthesizing review. Interpretation and response to behaviour is predicated on understanding. However, our present understanding of aggressive behaviour, especially for complex and vulnerable populations is limited.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs sensory processing and habituation of visual stimuli, effects normalized by postnatal environmental enrichment. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases responding to contingent light-onset and impairs the long-term habituation process. The PE-induced deficits could be ameliorated by rearing in the enriched environment and increasing the duration and frequency of exposure to light-onset.
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science – Neurobiology of Neuronal Network Alteration in Intellectual Disability Related to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The molecular and cellular mechanisms by which alcohol produces its deleterious effects on neuronal networks are only now beginning to be understood. This review focused on alcohol-induced neurobiological alterations on neuronal network components underlying information processing, for further understanding of intellectual disability related to FASD.
JAMA Network Open – Evaluation of Brain Alterations and Behavior in Children With Low Levels of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. In this cross-sectional study, children with low levels of PAE had lower FA and more behavioral problems compared with a well-matched control group. These results suggest that PAE, even in small amounts, has a measurable effect on brain structure in children.
Experimental Neurology – Effects of prenatal opioid and alcohol exposures on immune and serotonin factors in human placenta. This study provides the first evidence that PAE may inhibit SERT expression while simultaneously promoting increased TPH1 protein expression in human placenta.
Research Society and Development – Fetal alcoholic syndrome and consequences on child neurodevelopment: a literature review. The Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder occurs due to the consumption of alcohol by the mother during the gestational period and constitutes, currently, a serious problem, as it contributes to the appearance of a series of inborn defects in the child, especially with regard to child neurodevelopment.
Midwifery – “Now, with a bit more knowledge, I understand why I’m asking those questions.” Midwives’ perspectives on their role in the Greater Manchester Health and Social Care Partnership’s programme to Reduce Alcohol Exposed Pregnancies (AEP). To understand midwives’ perspectives regarding the effect of a programme of activities aimed at reducing alcohol exposed pregnancies at two NHS Trusts in XX. The programme included new protocols for screening, a referral pathway for specialist support and alcohol training for midwives.
UC San Diego Electronic Theses and Dissertations – Breastfeeding and Neurodevelopment in infants exposed to alcohol during pregnancy
This study aims to identify if the association between breastfeeding and infant neurodevelopment is modified by pattern of PAE.
Brazilian Journal of Development – THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON FETAL CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT DURING GESTATION: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
The present study used evidence-based dentistry (EBD) to identify clinical studies that described the effects of alcohol on fetal craniofacial development and qualitatively analyze the results found via this systematic review.
Cureus – Trend Analysis of Substance Use Disorder During Pregnancy
The current trends necessitate a further assessment and implementation of comprehensive community-based treatment programs tailored to the most frequent regional SUD presentations, which could aid in mitigating drug use during pregnancy.
BMC Health Services Research – Enhancing clinician participation in quality improvement training: implementation and impact of an evidence-based initiative to maximise antenatal clinician participation in training regarding women’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy. A training initiative based on evidence-based principles resulted in almost all clinicians receiving some training and 69% participating in at least 1 h of training. Variability between professions suggests training needs to be tailored to such groups.
The University of Western Ontario – Motives for Caregivers of Children with FASD Who Connect with a Caregiver to Caregiver Mentor. This qualitative study explored motives of caregivers for children and youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) who connected with caregiver to caregiver mentors.
27 Mar 2022
Archives of Disease in Childhood – Impact of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder on families
FASD impacts children’s health, and function of the family and unaffected siblings. These novel findings highlight the need for family-oriented service development.
Scientific Reports – A data driven approach to identify trajectories of prenatal alcohol consumption in an Australian population-based cohort of pregnant women. Accurate information on dose, frequency and timing of maternal alcohol consumption is critically important when investigating fetal risks from prenatal alcohol exposure.
The University of Western Ontario – Motives for Caregivers of Children with FASD Who Connect with a Caregiver to Caregiver Mentor. This study was intended to determine the motives of caregivers of children and youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) who accessed caregiver to caregiver mentors.
Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders – mRNA expression analysis of the hippocampus in a vervet monkey model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Prenatal alcohol exposure leads to global downregulation in mRNA expression. The cellular interference model of EFNB1 provides a potential clue regarding how genetically susceptible individuals may develop the phenotypic triad generally associated with classic fetal alcohol syndrome.
Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities – A Comparison of the Demographic and Clinical Characteristics of Caregivers of Autistic Children and Caregivers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Given the similarities in these two caregiver groups, and the shortage of research on families of people with FASD relative to families of autistic people, interventions for family caregivers in the autism community may also be applicable for FASD families, for whom fewer resources are available.
NeuroToxicology – BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER AS AN INTERFACE FOR ALCOHOL INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY DURING DEVELOPMENT
In this review, we address the effects of alcohol exposure on the formation of the BBB, specifically describing the cellular and molecular events induced by ethanol in the physiology of endothelial cells and glial cells, as well as their interaction during CNS development.
Cavendish Repository – ASSESSMENT OF OCCURENCE OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AMONG WOMEN OF CHILDBEARING AGE AT LIVINGSTONE CENTRAL HOSPITAL, ZAMBIA
Age, education level, employment status and presence of chronic physical or mental illness were associated with alcohol consumption among women of childbearing age.
Alcoholism – Sexually dimorphic organization of open field behavior following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure
These findings support the conclusion that adult male rats have an increased susceptibility to the effects of PAE in the organization of open field behavior.
Systematic Reviews – Prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders and their impact on the health and social well-being among looked after children (LAC): a systematic review protocol. Attaining an estimated prevalence of these NDDs and identifying any impacts on health and social well-being might inform key stakeholders in health, educational and social sectors with important information that might aid in the early identification and intervention to safeguard and meet the unique needs of these children.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction – A current view on the alcohol-related teratogenic effects during pregnancy. Potential preventive measures. Preventing FAS is an urgent and unexplored issue in Russia. Medical doctors able to conduct pregravid preparation of a married couple while they plan to conceive a healthy child are highly demanded.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Adult Daughters of Alcoholic Parents—A Qualitative Study of These Women’s Pregnancy Experiences and the Potential Implications for Antenatal Care Provision. The adult children of alcoholic parents are at increased risk of having health problems compared to the adult children of nonalcoholic parents. Little is known about how growing up with alcoholic parents affects women’s experiences when pregnant.
Nutrients – Untargeted Metabolome Analysis Reveals Reductions in Maternal Hepatic Glucose and Amino Acid Content That Correlate with Fetal Organ Weights in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) causes fetal growth restrictions. A major driver of fetal growth deficits is maternal metabolic disruption; this is under-investigated following PAE. Untargeted metabolomics on the dam and fetus exposed to alcohol (ALC) revealed that the hepatic metabolome of ALC and control (CON) dams were distinct, whereas that of ALC and CON fetuses were similar.
BJSE – ‘I’m always up against a brick wall with them’: parents’ experiences of accessing support for their child with a newly recognised developmental disorder. There needs to be greater awareness of additional needs in children without externalising behaviours, the presence of gender-specific differences in the presentation of DDs, and FASD as a commonly occurring DD.
Journal of Medical Ethics – Can routine screening for alcohol consumption in pregnancy be ethically and legally justified? In the UK, it has been proposed that alongside the current advice to abstain from alcohol completely in pregnancy, there should be increased screening of pregnant women for alcohol consumption in order to prevent instances of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.
Front. Cell Dev. Biol – Transgenerational Effects of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure in Prepubescent Mice
Our results suggest that robust, clinically-relevant behavioral abnormalities are passed transgenerationally to the offspring of mice directly exposed to prenatal ethanol. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fcell.2022.812429/full?utm_source=S-TWT&utm_medium=SNET&utm_campaign=ECO_FCELL_XXXXXXXX_auto-dlvrit
13 Dec 2021
Behavioral Sciences & the Law – Diagnosing intellectual disability in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A function of which diagnostic manual is used? Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the largest known cause of intellectual disability (ID), and forensic experts are often called upon to determine if a defendant with FASD qualifies for a diagnosis of ID.
University of KwaZulu-Natal – The role of communication in addressing sociocultural factors that influence pregnant women to drink alcohol in Durban. The study found the importance to extend beyond knowledge acquisition, but to mobilise communication as a culturally nuanced tool to facilitate psycho-social support during times of alcohol consumption when pregnant.
Sciences & the Law – The neurocognitive profiles of justice involved people with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A systematic review. Advancing knowledge in the field can have important implications for understanding of the antecedents of offending behaviour in this population, and informing strategies for early identification and intervention.
JMIR Formative – Initial Feasibility of the “Families Moving Forward Connect” Mobile Health Intervention for Caregivers of Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Mixed Method Evaluation Within a Systematic User-Centered Design Approach. The results demonstrate that the FMF Connect intervention is acceptable and feasible for caregivers raising children with FASD. They will guide subsequent app refinement before large-scale randomized testing.
CNS & neurological disorders drug targets – Markers of Neuroinflammation in the Serum of Prepubertal Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. The present investigation shows an imbalance in the peripheral neuroimmune pathways that could be used in children as early biomarkers of the deficits observed in FASD.
Future Medicine – Sex- and tissue-specific effects of binge-level prenatal alcohol consumption on DNA methylation at birth. Our findings warrant further replication and highlight a potential epigenetic link between binge PAE and FASD.
Health & social care in the community – Wraparound programmes for pregnant and parenting women with substance use concerns in Canada: Partnerships are essential
Wraparound programmes, wherein multiple services are offered at one location, are effective in engaging pregnant or parenting women experiencing substance use and other complex challenges while also addressing gaps in services between the health, child welfare and addictions fields.
University of Eastern Finland – FETAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE, BIOCHEMICAL FINDINGS AND INSIGHTS INTO CLINICAL OUTCOME
This study increases understanding of the structural and biochemical changes in alcohol-using mothers and their children. The results of this study indicate that alcohol use during the pregnancy causes a spectrum of harmful effects to the pregnanct mother and exposed children.
Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging – Adverse Prenatal Exposures and Fetal Brain Development: Insights from Advanced Fetal MRI
We summarize insights from MRI research in fetuses, highlight recent discoveries in normative fetal development using quantitative MRI techniques (i.e., three-dimensional volumetry, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, placental diffusion imaging, and functional imaging), and discuss how baseline trajectories are shaped by prenatal exposures.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Preconception health service provision among women with and without substance use disorders. There are numerous missed opportunities to provide preconception services to women with and without SUD. While delivering preconception services, healthcare providers have an opportunity to screen for SUD which may be more prevalent among women with psychiatric and medical problems.
29 Nov 2021
Dove Medical Press – Substance Use in Pregnancy: Identifying Stigma and Improving Care
To combat stigma when working with substance-using pregnant people throughout the peripartum period, caregivers should utilize a trauma-informed approach that incorporates harm reduction and motivational interviewing with a focus on building trust, enhancing self-efficacy, and strengthening the personal skills and resources needed to optimize health of the parent-baby dyad.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research – Development and validation of a postnatal risk score that identifies children with prenatal alcohol exposure
The risk score significantly distinguished alcohol-exposed from control subjects and correlated with important cognitive outcomes. It has significant clinical potential and could be easily deployed in clinical settings.
Forum Ortodontyczne/Orthodontic Forum – Dental and orthodontic evaluation of children and adolescents with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) – a review of the literature
Children with FASD should receive institutional preventive and therapeutic care, which will allow for systematic control of the oral health status and malocclusions.
Behavioral Sciences & The Law – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and Interviewing : a systematic review highlighting clinical and legal implications and recommendations
Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are estimated to be nineteen times more likely to encounter the criminal justice system (CJS) in comparison to individuals without FASD.
BMC Pediatrics – Utilization of psychotropic medications in children with FASD: a retrospective review
The prescription algorithm is promising but requires further refinement to accommodate the range of presentations in children with FASD.
The Journal of Pediatrics – Ear Abnormalities among Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Our findings highlight the importance of examining the ears during assessment for FASD, and the need for public health messaging regarding the harms of PAE.
International Journal of Mental Health and Addictions – Perspectives of Policymakers and Service Providers on Why Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Remain Unabated in South Africa: a Qualitative Study
The study findings suggest a cascade effect within the different levels of the ecological model highlighting the need for a holistic and systemic approach to preventing FASD in SA.
Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy – Alcohol use during pregnancy in post-conflict northern Uganda: pregnant women’s experiences and provider perceptions
Pregnant mothers in post-conflict northern Uganda regard alcohol as a remedy to some of the social, economic and health challenges they face.
Experimental Neurology – Potential roles of imprinted genes in the teratogenic effects of alcohol on the placenta, somatic growth, and the developing brain
In this review, we summarize the growing body of literature characterizing prenatal alcohol-related alterations in imprinted gene methylation and/or expression and discuss potential mechanistic roles for these alterations in the teratogenic effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.
The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry – Suicidality and Associated Factors Among Individuals Assessed for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Across the Lifespan in Canada: Suicidabilité et facteurs associés chez les personnes évaluées pour les troubles du spectre de l’alcoolisation fœtale de durée de vie au Canada
With this study, we contribute to the emerging evidence of elevated risk of suicidality among individuals with PAE/FASD and improve our understanding of factors that may exacerbate this risk.
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction – A current view on the teratogenic effects of alcohol during pregnancy. Possible preventive measures
From the analysis of domestic and foreign literature, it can be concluded that the problem of preventing fetal alcohol syndrome is an urgent and unexplored problem in Russia.
Edinburgh Research Archive – Behavioral profile of children with prenatal alcohol exposure and kinship and foster carers’ experiences of wellbeing and parenting stress
Children’s exposure to alcohol in pregnancy is a known risk factor for the development of life-long cognitive and neurobehavioural difficulties, collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs).
Genes – Prenatal Adversity Alters the Epigenetic Profile of the Prefrontal Cortex: Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Food-Related Stress
Prenatal adversity or stress can have long-term consequences on developmental trajectories and health outcomes. Although the biological mechanisms underlying these effects are poorly understood, epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, have the potential to link early-life environments to alterations in physiological systems, with long-term functional implications.
Circulation – Epigenetic Regulation of Notch Signaling by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impacts Cardiac Outflow Tract Defect Development
Acute PAE induces hyperacetylation in the SHF and inhibits Notch signaling by restricting NICD translocation. Lack of Notch signaling reduces SHF viability and prevents elongation of the developing OFT.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Prenatal choline supplementation during mouse pregnancy has differential effects in alcohol-exposed fetal organs
Choline prevents the alcohol-reduced gestational weight gain and fetal body weight and corrects fetal brain sparing, consistent with clinical findings of improvements in alcohol-exposed children born to mothers receiving choline supplementation.
Developmental Neurobiology – Long-lasting implications of embryonic exposure to alcohol: Insights from zebrafish research
The harmful consumption of ethanol is associated with significant health problems and social burdens. This drug activates a complex network of reward mechanisms and habit formation learning that is supposed to contribute to the consumption of increasingly high and frequent amounts, ultimately leading to addiction.
Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging – Corpus Callosum Morphometry in Children With Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Alcohol is known to have a neurotoxic effect on the brain of offspring of mothers consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics – “The Offspring of Drunkards”: Gender, Welfare, and the Eugenic Politics of Birth Control and Alcohol Reform in the United States
The social politics of women’s alcohol use is controversial given current debates over maternal-fetal health, fetal alcohol syndrome, and debates about welfare. Exploring the early twentieth century intersections of Prohibition, birth control reform, and alcohol politics reveals the historical roots of current recommendations surrounding women, alcohol, and public assistance.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: current state of diagnosis and treatment.
FASDs are a common cause of neurodevelopmental impairment in school-age children, and their recognition is essential to provide early interventions in order to optimize the outcome for these individuals when they reach adulthood.
PharmacoEconomics – Budget Impact Analysis of an Epigenetic Test Used for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder from the Perspective of a Laboratory Budget Holder in Manitoba, Canada
Findings provide insight into the impact that DNA methylation testing would have on laboratory budgets if used in the diagnostic workup for FASD in individuals for whom prenatal alcohol exposure cannot be confirmed otherwise.
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction – Resilience Resources and Emotional and Behavioral Functioning Among Youth and Young Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
These findings complement previous research documenting the necessity of ensuring early stable relationships for youth with FASD and permitting timely access to diagnostic services.
Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience – Examining the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on corticothalamic connectivity: A multimodal neuroimaging study in children The results support the hypothesis that integrity of the corticothalamic tracts influences cortical alpha power. Further research is needed to understand how brain structure and function influence behavior.
Behavioral Sciences & the Law – Diminished culpability in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
There is a biological basis for diminished criminal responsibility in offenders with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) just as there is in those with intellectual disability.
Advances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders – Discrepancies in Performance-Based Measures and Teacher Ratings of Executive Function in the Assessment of FASD
Results suggest that tests and teacher ratings of executive functioning may not measure the same construct or other factors may be impacting this relationship.
University of East London – Children with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and their Experiences of School Belonging: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis It is anticipated that this research will go some way towards raising the profile of FASD amongst frontline educational professionals in the UK.
Social Science & Medicine – Alcohol use during pregnancy in rural Lesotho: “There is nothing else except alcohol”
Within this context of chronic poverty and food insecurity, alcohol use during pregnancy will continue to represent a valid, though tragic choice if the structural conditions and current social arrangements that facilitate prenatal alcohol use remain unchanged.
Current Opinion in Pediatrics – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders current state of diagnosis and treatment
FASDs are a common cause of neurodevelopmental impairment in school-age children, and their recognition is essential to provide early interventions in order to optimize the outcome for these individuals when they reach adulthood.
Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy – Substance abuse in pregnancy
The use of screening tools such as brief office interventions assists in identifying women at risk or currently using harmful substances and is one strategy providers may implement to support a positive and healthy pregnancy outcome.
Cancer – Association between pregnancy intention and preconception health behaviors
Pregnancy intentions were associated with some healthier preconception behaviors in AYA survivors. Medical professionals caring for AYA survivors may consider pregnancy intention screening to guide conversations on preconception health.
Australian Indigenous HealthBulletin – Review of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a preventable, lifelong disability that disproportionately affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. This review provides a comprehensive synthesis of the available information on FASD among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, with reference to the limitations on population-based data and evaluated programs.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence – The frequency of severe Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the neonatal period using data from the French hospital discharge database between 2006 and 2013
This study provides the first national estimate of neonatal diagnosis of FAS, and more broadly pFASD, in France. Although our data certainly underestimate the real prevalence of FASD, they provide a minimal estimate of the burden of alcohol use during pregnancy. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037687162100243X
Biological Psychiatry – Corticostriatal circuit models of cognitive impairments induced by fetal exposure to alcohol
The term Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) includes a group of diseases caused by fetal alcohol exposure (FAE). FASD patients display heterogenous socio-emotional and cognitive deficits, particularly in the domain of executive function, which share symptoms with other neuropsychiatric disorders.
Italian Journal of Pediatrics – Sleep problems among children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD)- an explorative study
The results support the clinical observation that sleep disorders appear to be an important health problem in individuals with FASD. In particular distorted sleep architecture and apneic/hypopneic events need further attention.
FASEB Journal – Altered Developmental Programming in a Dual Model of
Maternal and Paternal Alcohol Consumption
According to the CDC, Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. This definition places the fault for FASD-associated mental and physical defects exclusively on the mother.
Neuropsychology – Measurement of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal
alcohol exposure in Ukrainian preschool children
To examine the potential of a nonverbal battery in early identification of cognitive problems in alcohol-exposed children, 291 prospectively identified Ukrainian children were evaluated using a test battery focusing on early executive functioning (EF) and visuospatial skills, areas of cognitive development particularly sensitive to PAE in older children.
Brain Research – Effects of postnatal ethanol exposure and maternal
separation on mood, cognition and hippocampal arborization in adolescent rats
Ethanol exposure and early life stress during brain development are associated with an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders.
Open Research – Risk messages relating to fertility and pregnancy: a
media content analysis
Frequent science-based risk messages in the UK media frame mothers as vectors of potential harm to children, who are the focus of health outcomes. Largely, the media does not introduce misinformation, but reports press releases faithfully with additional caveats and expert commentary.
The FASEB Journal – Epigenetic Toxicity: Preconception Paternal Alcohol Exposure and the Programming of Offspring Birth Defects
Paternally inherited alterations in epigenetic programming are emerging as a relevant factor in numerous developmental disorders. Despite the exclusive association of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) with maternal drinking, research from our lab indicates that paternal alcohol use is a relevant factor in this debilitating condition. https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.2021.35.S1.02516
Cell Culture – Fetal Brain Injury Models of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome:
Examination of Neuronal Morphologic Condition Using Sholl Assay
The lack of a convenient in vitro human neuronal model to study alcohol-induced neurodegenerative diseases, such as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), prompted us to develop human neuronal culture and in vitro human FAS model by incubating cells with physiologically relevant EtOH concentration (50 mM).
– Substance use, mental health and dual disorders on pregnancy: results
of prevalence and treatment rates in a developed country
Smoking and substance use during pregnancy are major preventable causes of mortality and morbidity, having a bidirectional and deleterious relationship with the mental health of the mother and child.
Mood Disorders – Substance Use Disorders in Pregnancy and Lactation
Women use substances and, for some, this use continues during pregnancy. It is not uncommon for women with substance use disorders to have a co-occurring mental health condition.
FASEB Journal – Prenatal alcohol exposure causes structural and
functional cardiac defects, which can be prevented with folate supplementation
Increased regurgitant blood flow has been linked to endocardial cushion defects and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHDs). Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been shown to alter early blood flow resulting in abnormal endocardial cushions and CHDs.
Pediatric Health – The Burden of Adverse Neonatal Outcome among
Antenatal Substance Users in Ethiopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Substances mainly khat, alcohol and cigarette are used during pregnancy in Ethiopia. However, to this date, there is no pooled evidence about the burden of adverse neonatal outcomes among the substance users during pregnancy in the country.
and Alcohol Dependence – Changes in alcohol consumption during
pregnancy and over the transition towards parenthood
Further awareness of the risks associated with male-partner drinking could provide substantial public health benefits. Successful facilitation and implementation of interventions and harm reduction strategies for harmful drinking over the pre- to postnatal period could benefit from further consideration of socioeconomic status and education level, particularly for men.
Clinical & Experimental Research – Partner influence as a factor in
maternal alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms, and maternal effects on
infant neurodevelopmental outcomes
Partner influence is an important contributor to prenatal alcohol use and maternal depressive symptoms, over and above the effect of SES. The significant paths from prenatal alcohol exposure to infant neurodevelopmental outcomes underscore the importance of partner influence during pregnancy.
Pregnancy and Childbirth – Objective assessment of alcohol consumption
in early pregnancy using phosphatidylethanol: a cross‐sectional study
One in nineteen women consumed alcohol during early pregnancy with a high percentage not reporting this use to their obstetric care provider.
of Substance Abuse Treatment – Substance use among women who are
pregnant: Examining treatment completion by race and ethnicity
Substance use during pregnancy is a critical public health issue that affects both the mother and the fetus. While research has assessed racial differences in treatment completion among women who are pregnant for specific types of substances, few studies have evaluated treatment completion for a variety of substances.
POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE – National FASD: Social Media Reimagined
It is important to look at the relationship dynamics between people with FASD and their supporting communities, who are also directly affected by these disorders. Along with affecting the lives of those diagnosed, these disorders also greatly impacts the lives of the caregivers and family members of those with FASD.
Ophthalmologica – Visual perception problems and quality of life in
young adults with foetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Young adults with FASD in the present study had more VPPs and worse VRQoL and HRQoL than healthy controls. In the FASD group, VPPs were reported in childhood as well as in early adulthood.
– Developmental ethanol exposure causes central nervous system dysfunction
and may slow the aging process in a Drosophila model of fetal alcohol spectrum
Alcohol is a known teratogen, and developmental exposure to ethanol results in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Children born with FASD can exhibit a range of symptoms including low birth weight, microcephaly, and neurobehavioral problems.
Journal of Paediatric Neurology – Assessing the needs of caregivers of
children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Results from a
survey among families and professionals in Germany
The results of the present study indicate that FASD caregivers are supported insufficiently, while most of their needs remain unmet. Health care planners and providers thus urgently need to identify and implement measures to better address FASD caregivers’ needs and demands.
PMC – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders-diagnosis, prognosis, and
Besides health promotion and education of the general population, the knowledge transfer to doctors and other medical, psychological, and pedagogical professionals is of particular relevance.
– Prenatal Exposure And Child brain and mental Health (PEACH) study:
protocol for a cohort study of children and youth with prenatal alcohol
This project will forge new understanding of FASD and mental health from a neurobiological perspective, highlighting key time periods (ie, sensitive windows) and brain regions (ie, that may be susceptible to neurostimulation), while identifying factors that predict individual trajectories of anxiety and depression symptoms.
University – What is the effectiveness of sensory- and motor-based
activities on improving sensory, motor, and executive functioning of children
with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)?
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) impact approximately 2-5% of 6-7 year olds in the United States, affecting their executive functioning, sensory, and motor regulation.
Sexual & Reproductive Health – Preconception alcohol consumption
and risk of miscarriage in over 4.5 million Chinese women aged 20–49 years
Preconception alcohol consumption was associated with higher odds of miscarriage, and an increasing risk was found with paternal and maternal alcohol drinking. Periconception alcohol abstinence was inversely associated with miscarriage.
Clinical & Experimental Research – Effects of advanced maternal age
and acute prenatal alcohol exposure on mouse offspring growth and craniofacial
Our results indicate that maternal age modulates the effects of PAE, but that the effects of this combination on offspring outcomes is more complex than simply scaling the effects of either factor.
and Child Health Journal – Pre-pregnancy and Prenatal Alcohol use Among
American Indian and Alaska Native and Non-Hispanic White Women: Findings from
PRAMS in Five States
Factors associated with prenatal alcohol use differ between AI/AN women and NHW women, suggesting the need for tailored interventions.
and Child Health Journal – Pregnancy and Binge Drinking: An
Intersectionality Theory Perspective Using Veteran Status and Racial/Ethnic
Intersectionality Theory suggests that the stressors from membership in two vulnerable groups may lead to increased disparities. The results of this study highlight the unique experience of being a veteran and identifying as a member of a racial/ethnic minority group.
Clinical & Experimental Research – Effects of advanced maternal age
and acute prenatal alcohol exposure on mouse offspring growth and craniofacial
Our results indicate that maternal age modulates the effects of PAE, but that the effects of this combination on offspring outcomes is more complex than simply scaling the effects of either factor.
BMJ Open – Fetal
Alcohol Spectrum Disorder resources for educators working within primary school
settings: a scoping review protocol
Many children affected by Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit neurocognitive delays that contribute to secondary consequences, including a disrupted school experience.
Journal of Public
Health – Measuring and understanding public awareness of fetal alcohol
spectrum disorders in Alberta, Canada
The FASD Survey is a promising instrument to evaluate public awareness of FASD but it needs further improvement to make valid conclusions about FASD awareness.
American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition – Polymorphisms in SLC44A1 are associated with cognitive
improvement in children diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: an
exploratory study of oral choline supplementation
These SLC44A1 variants were previously associated with greater vulnerability to choline deficiency. Our data potentially support the use of choline supplements to improve cognitive function in individuals diagnosed with FASD who carry these effect alleles.
Frontiers in Public
Health – Policy Requirements for the Prevention and Management of Fetal
Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in South Africa: A Policy Brief
This policy brief is aimed to guide policymakers in developing a comprehensive and multi-sectoral policy for the prevention and management of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).
– Investigating the effects of chronic perinatal alcohol and combined
nicotine and alcohol exposure on dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic neurons in
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origin of dopaminergic neurons and the dopamine (DA) reward pathway.
iScience – Cell-type
and fetal-sex-specific targets of prenatal alcohol exposure in developing mouse
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) results in cerebral cortical dysgenesis. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on murine fetal cerebral cortical cells from six timed pregnancies, to decipher persistent cell- and sex-specific effects of an episode of PAE during early neurogenesis.
Repositoorium – Children born to substance abusing mothers
In our world today, we are facing an increase in mental health awareness. A major topic in this category is babies being born to addicted mothers. Children born to these mothers are entered into this world already needing help.
Bone – Pravastatin
ameliorated osteoarthritis susceptibility in male offspring rats induced by
prenatal ethanol exposure
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease associated with a disorder of cholesterol metabolism. Our previous studies showed that prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) caused cholesterol accumulation in articular cartilage and increased the susceptibility to OA in offspring.
Maternal and Child
Health Journal – Improved Maternal and Infant Outcomes with Serial,
Self-Reported Early Prenatal Substance Use Screening
We identified improved maternal and infant outcomes with serial early prenatal substance use screening. Early maternal substance use identification is crucial for immediate referral for prevention and treatment, and for social and community services.
American Journal of
Clinical Nutrition – Healthy preconception and early-pregnancy
lifestyle and risk of preterm birth: a prospective cohort study
A healthy prenatal lifestyle with multiple low-risk modifiable factors was associated with lower risk of PTB. Our findings may inform multicomponent preconceptional or early-pregnancy prevention strategies to mitigate PTB risk.
Journal of Substance
Abuse Treatment – Developing a model of care for substance use in
pregnancy and parenting services, Sydney, Australia: Service provider
A harm reduction approach was crucial for promoting engagement of women with SUPPS, particularly child protection services. A greater focus on providing ongoing community-based support for mothers also has the potential to achieve sustainable positive outcomes for women and children.
JAMA Network – Association
of Preconception Paternal Alcohol Consumption With Increased Fetal Birth Defect
Maternal alcohol consumption is closely associated with alcohol-related birth defects and neurodevelopment,1 and therefore, it is widely recommended for women to quit consuming alcohol before and during pregnancy.
PrePrints – How
Prenatal Exposures Shape the Infant Brain: Insights from Infant Neuroimaging
Brain development during the prenatal period is rapid and unparalleled by any other time during development. Biological systems undergoing rapid development are at higher risk for disorganizing influences.
BMC Research Notes
– Maternal drinking and smoking. Can it explain the exceptional
academic performance of LBOTE children? A preliminary analysis
Although children from language backgrounds other than English (LBOTE) may be disadvantaged in English-reliant exams, they outperform children from an English language background (ELB) on many Australian National Assessment Program–Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) assessments.
Psychopathology – Maternal pre- and postnatal substance use and
attachment in young children: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Maternal substance use has often been associated with insecure and disorganized child attachment. We evaluated this association with a meta-analysis of young children and, further, systematically reviewed mediating and moderating factors between maternal substance use and child attachment.
Reproductive Healthcare – Alcohol and illicit and non-medical
prescription drug use before and during pregnancy in Stockholm, Sweden: a
Approximately one in 25 women reported using alcohol and approximately one in 200 reported using illicit or non-medical prescription drugs while pregnant. Alcohol use during pregnancy may have decreased in Stockholm, Sweden.
Reflections: Narratives of Professional Helping – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: One Minute to Midnight
This reflection focuses on my experiences as a social worker working with individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) and their families for almost 40 years.
ResearchGate – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder and Cognitive Function in Children: A Meta-Analysis and Computational Model
This meta-analysis examines 46 studies comparing 2,307 participants across a range of functional statuses. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Richard-Lamb-7/publication/350443376_Fetal_Alcohol_Spectrum_Disorder_and_Cognitive_Function_in_Children_A_Meta-Analysis_and_Computational_Model/links/605fc5c6a6fdccbfea0f59b2/Fetal-Alcohol-Spectrum-Disorder-and-Cognitive-Function-in-Children-A-Meta-Analysis-and-Computational-Model.pdf
Cognitive Neuroscience – Functional connectivity of the attention
networks is altered and relates to neuropsychological outcomes in children with
prenatal alcohol exposure
Increased intra-network together with reduced internetwork FC suggests inefficient network specialization and impaired long-range FC among attention network regions after PAE.
University – Effects of Alcohol on the Skeletal Development of the
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is specifically characterized by growth and mental retardation, craniofacial malformations, and heart and neural defects, is caused by exposure to alcohol during embryonic or fetal development.
– Alcohol abuse in pregnancy: maternal characteristics, physical and
health indices of their newborns (according to Lithuanian medical data of
Alcohol abuse complicated the course and outcomes of pregnancy: women who consumed it have had increased morbidity, miscarriages, or stillbirths, and their newborns were 4 times more often premature
and had lower average
indices of physical status than the general population.
The University of New
Mexico – Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Toll-Like
Receptors Activity Detectable in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth
These results support that even moderate PAE may alter the developing immune system, with alterations in cytokine expression that have the potential to impact lifelong immunological reactions.
Department of Justice Canada – Exploring the Use of Restorative Justice Practices with Adult Offenders with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
There are serious concerns about the vulnerability and needs of individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). FASD, a diagnostic term used to describe the impacts of prenatal alcohol exposure on the brain and body, is a lifelong disability.
Anales de Pediatria – Neurocognitive and behavioral profile of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
A neurocognitive and behavioral profile specific for FASD has not been defined and all the symptoms are common to other etiologies. The aim of this work is to review the neuropsychological profile in the diagnosis of TEAF. https://europepmc.org/article/med/33745838
Nutrients – The
Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation, Alcohol Reduction, Diet and Physical
Activity Interventions in Improving Maternal and Infant Health Outcomes: A
Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses
Diet, physical activity, smoking and alcohol behaviour-change interventions delivered in pregnancy aim to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes. This review reports a synthesis of evidence from meta-analyses on the effectiveness of interventions at reducing risk of adverse health outcomes.
AND DOCTORAL STUDIES – Multiple Case Analysis Exploration of Prenatal
Substance Exposure on Juvenile Adjudicative Competence
This study promotes positive social change by providing insight into the neurological and cognitive factors that affect adolescents’ psycholegal abilities when there is prenatal substance exposure. Juveniles with prenatal substance exposure are a vulnerable population that needs protective measures to ensure their constitutional rights.
Exploratio – Maternal,
Fetal, and Long-term Effects of Substance Abuse During Pregnancy
Substance abuse has continued to be a major public health concern for many years. Over the past couple decades, the rates for addiction have increased drastically, affecting many more women than before.
– Neuroimaging of Supraventricular Frontal White Matter in Children
with Familial Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Attention-Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder Due to Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
These findings suggest white matter differences between the PAE and familial etiologies of ADHD. Abnormalities detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging co-localize in supraventricular white matter and are relevant to executive function symptoms of ADHD.
Oxford Research Encyclopedia – Substance Use and Use Disorders in Pregnancy in Two Cultural Contexts: The United States and Afghanistan
Women in all countries use substances, and for some women, such use continues during pregnancy. When substance use impairs life functioning and becomes a use disorder, regardless of the type of substance, effective treatments are available (e.g., medication to treat opioid and alcohol use disorders and behavioral approaches to treat tobacco, stimulant, and other substances). https://oxfordre.com/publichealth/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190632366.001.0001/acrefore-9780190632366-e-187
Journal of Obstetric,
Gynecologic & Neonatal Nursing – Scoping Review of the Associations
Between Perinatal Substance Use and Perinatal Depression and Anxiety
There is a paucity of published research on co-occurring PSU and PDA. However, polysubstance use appears to be associated with the greatest risk for PDA. It is essential to address PSU and PDA together to better understand the effects on maternal and infant outcomes.
Bioanalytical Chemistry – Development and validation of a method for
the simultaneous analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters, ethyl sulfate and ethyl
glucuronide in neonatal meconium: application in two cases of alcohol
consumption during pregnancy
The method proved to be sensitive, specific, simple and fast and allowed for the reduction of the amount of organic solvent used for extraction compared to other published data while higher recoveries were obtained. The method was used for analysis of meconium samples in two cases of mothers who were consuming alcohol during pregnancy.
– Neural mechanisms of sexual decision-making in women with alcohol use
Visual sexual cues produced reactivity like that previously demonstrated for alcohol cues, suggesting a shared or domain-general mechanism for alcohol and sexual cue reactivity in women with AUD.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – “The Problem Is that We Hear a Bit of Everything . . . ”: A Qualitative Systematic Review of Factors Associated with Alcohol Use, Reduction, and Abstinence in Pregnancy
The impact of structural and systemic factors on prenatal alcohol use was largely absent in the included studies, instead focusing on individual choice. This silence risks perpetuating stigma and highlights the criticality of addressing intersecting structural and systemic factors in supporting maternal and fetal health.
Global Pediatric Health – Institutionalized Children and the Risk of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD); A Primer for Clinicians, Adoption Staff and Parents
A large proportion of adopted institutionalized children may not follow a normal developmental trajectory. If not afflicted by FASD, there is a positive impact of adoption on children’s cognitive development and in general they are comparable to their non- adopted peers.
Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability – “It’s
ignorant stereotypes”: Key stakeholder perspectives on stereotypes associated
with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, alcohol, and pregnancy
Our results align with research about difficult experiences of FASD stakeholders. However, while Canadian news analyses found people with FASD portrayed as criminals, our participants identified mostly non-crime stereotypes. Participants also sometimes shifted the burden of motherhood stereotypes from low-income to higher-income women.
Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada – Perspectives of
Canadian Health Care Providers on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: A brief
report exploring 15 years
The findings from these surveys may inform the development of ongoing educational initiatives to help HCPs with screening for alcohol use during pregnancy and early diagnosis and prevention of FASD.
European Journal of Paediatric Neurology – Evidence-based interventions for children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders – A systematic review
There are only a few randomized-controlled trials regarding therapy research for children and adolescents with FASD. Evidence-based intervention studies indicate that especially the combination of parent and child sessions present a promising approach for the treatment of FASD.
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Estimated Prevalence of Harmful Alcohol Consumption in Pregnant and Non‐pregnant Women in Saxony‐Anhalt (North‐East Germany) Using Biomarkers
Estimated prevalence rates differ greatly with respect to the biomarkers and cut‐offs used. The isolated measurement of CDT/%CDT might result in an overestimation of harmful alcohol consumption during pregnancy.
Journal of Neuroscience Research – Ethanol modulation of cerebellar neuroinflammation in a postnatal mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are alarmingly common, result in significant personal and societal loss, and there is no effective treatment for these disorders.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – Barriers and enablers of
implementation of alcohol guidelines with pregnant women: a cross-sectional
survey among UK midwives
Our results suggest that skill development and reinforcement of support from colleagues and the wider maternity system could support midwives’ implementation of alcohol advice at each antenatal appointment, not just at booking could lead to improved outcomes for women and infants.
Plos one – Protective factors against tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women from a tribal nation in the Central United States
Identifying social determinants of tobacco and alcohol use during pregnancy is critical to improving health outcomes for the next generation. This is especially important on a rural Tribal Nation where influences such as isolation, cultural barriers, and historical trauma have made it uniquely challenging to prevent substance use during pregnancy.
Children – Maternal Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Relation to Child Malnutrition in Gauteng, South Africa: A Retrospective Analysis
This study determined the association between maternal tobacco and alcohol use, and malnutrition, among infants aged ≤ 12 months (n = 300), in selected health facilities situated in Gauteng, South Africa.
Molecular Medicine Reports – Prenatal ethanol exposure impairs the formation of radial glial fibers and promotes the transformation of GFAPδ‑positive radial glial cells into astrocytes
During embryonic cortical development, radial glial cells (RGCs) are the major source of neurons, and these also serve as a supportive scaffold to guide neuronal migration. Similar to Vimentin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is one of the major intermediate filament proteins present in glial cells.
Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research – Phosphatidylethanol as Blood Biomarker of Alcohol Consumption in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Study in 4067 Pregnant Women
In an unselected pregnant population in Norway 1.4 % had a positive PEth sample around gestational week 12 whereas 0.4% had a positive sample around week 24. The use of PEth as an alcohol biomarker should be further investigated as a possible diagnostic tool in the antenatal setting.
BMC Psychiatry – Magnitude and associated factors of substance use among
pregnant women attending antenatal care in public hospitals of eastern Ethiopia
The magnitude of antenatal substance use in the study area was 26.5%. Pre- pregnancy substance use, partner substance use, monthly house hold income and family substance use were found to be positively associated with substance use during pregnancy.
Child Maltreatment – Prenatal Substance Exposure and Child
Maltreatment: A Systematic Review
State and federal policies regarding substance use in pregnancy, specifically whether a notification to child protective services is required, continue to evolve. To inform practice, policy, and future research, we sought to synthesize and critically evaluate the existing literature regarding the association of prenatal substance exposure with child maltreatment.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence – Timing of mortality in mothers with recurrent convictions for driving under the influence of alcohol and their children, from childbirth to child age 17
Severe maternal AUD, as characterized by rDUI, increases the risk for child mortality over that of Controls through age 17. Delays in rDUI maternal mortality until child age 6 may indicate a period when maternal referral for intervention to reduce harm to child and mother is likely to be especially effective.
Public health nursing – Intimate partner violence, prenatal stress, and substance use among pregnant Black women
Perceived stress during pregnancy partially mediated the association between previous experience of IPV and marijuana use among pregnant Black women. Interventions are needed to reduce IPV that would lower stress during pregnancy and consequently substance abuse to improve pregnancy outcomes and maternal and newborn health.
Public Health Reports – Discordance Between Perinatal Alcohol Use Among Women and Provider Counseling for Alcohol Use: An Assessment of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System
Disparities in alcohol counseling occurred despite the national recommendation for universal screening and counseling prenatally. Continued integration of universal screening for alcohol use during pregnancy is needed.