Much of the following research is provided courtesy of EUFASD for which we are grateful.

13 March 2023

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – Disrupted dynamic functional network connectivity in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Our results indicate important resting-state dFNC differences exist in children with FASD. Participants with FASD exhibited increased dynamic fluidity and dynamic range and spent more time in states typified by anticorrelation within and between DMN and VN, and more time in a state typified by high internetwork connectivity.

Pielęgniarstwo w Opiece Długoterminowej – What should students know about FAS when they help people with alcohol dependence?
Efforts should be made to increase public awareness of the risks of using drugs during pregnancy. The increased level of knowledge will affect not only the health behavior of patients, but may also improve the early diagnosis of FAS.,150,50243,0,1.html

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – Rethinking Local Economic Development for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Renosterberg Local Municipality, South Africa
Two towns in Renosterberg Local Municipality (RLM) in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, Petrusville and Philipstown, have high Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) prevalence rates.

The FASEB Journal – Mitigating the detrimental developmental impact of early fetal alcohol exposure using a maternal methyl donor-enriched diet
This study clearly supports that preimplantation embryos are vulnerable to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, emphasizes the dangers of maternal alcohol consumption during early gestation, and provides a potential proactive maternal nutritional intervention to minimize FASD progression, reinforcing the importance of adequate preconception and prenatal nutrition.

First Peoples Child and Family Review – Aboriginal Kinship Carers and Carers of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in Western Australia: Advancing Knowledge from an Indigenous and Disability Lens
Children and youth with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) have limited access to assessment, diagnostic, and treatment resources – a distinct disadvantage in meeting their care needs in Australia.

Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology – Sexual dimorphic vulnerability of respiratory control in a neonatal rodent model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
These data suggest that important ventilatory defense responses in females are impaired following developmental EtOH exposure, and this may be associated with increased risk of later death.

Nature Reviews Disease Primers – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
Alcohol readily crosses the placenta and may disrupt fetal development. Harm from prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is determined by the dose, pattern, timing and duration of exposure, fetal and maternal genetics, maternal nutrition, concurrent substance use, and epigenetic responses.

Neurodevelopmental Pediatrics – Genetic, Epigenetic, and Environmental Influences on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Implications for Diagnosis, Research and Clinical Practice
We provide an overview of FASD and a brief history of the development of diagnostic criteria, review risk and resilience factors that impact the expression of the disorder, discuss genetic and epigenetic factors in FASD, and conclude by relating these findings to the clinical context.

Neurodevelopmental Pediatrics – Clinical Perspectives on the Diagnostic Assessment of Individuals with FASD
The purpose of this chapter is to provide clinicians with an overview of the diagnostic assessment of individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure.

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – Adverse childhood experiences in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and their effects on behavior
Children with FASD are at risk for ACEs, and those with higher ACEs had a greater frequency of problem behavior on the ECBI, especially conduct problems.

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – An investigation of the utility of the Australian Guide to the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in young children
These results highlight the complexity of presentation and the extent of impairment in the sample. The use of comorbid diagnoses to substantiate a “severe” designation in specific neurodevelopmental domains raises the question of whether there were false-positive diagnoses.

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – Sleep disturbances in Norwegian children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) with and without a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or epilepsy. Problems with sleep are very common in FASD children and seem independent of FASD subgroup and the presence of epilepsy or a pathological EEG finding, while those with ADHD had more sleep problems.

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – Validation of the FASD-Tree as a screening tool for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The FASD-Tree is not a biomarker of PAE and does not provide definitive evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure.

BJR| Open – Spectrum of MRI findings of foetal alcohol syndrome disorders – what we know and what we need to know! The exposure to alcohol in utero has been known to damage the developing foetus. Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is an umbrella term that highlights a range of adverse effects linked to alcohol exposure in utero.

Alcohol: Clinical and Experimental Research – Latent classes of neurodevelopmental profiles and needs in children and adolescents with prenatal alcohol exposure. Four relatively distinct subgroups were present in a large heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents with PAE assessed for FASD in Canada.

International Journal of High Risk Behaviors and Addiction – Emerging Risk of Ethanol-related Outbreak via Clandestine Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy: An Alarming Note on Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Iran. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an increased risk behavior that raises significant clinical concerns. Ethanol is classified as a hazardous teratogenic substance (1).

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth – A harmonized analysis of five Canadian pregnancy cohort studies: exploring the characteristics and pregnancy outcomes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure
Pooling data across pregnancy cohort studies allowed us to create a large sample of Canadian women and investigate the risk factors for alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

Current Psychology – Alcohol consumption after pregnancy awareness and the additive effect of pregnancy-related anxiety and child abuse. This study examined whether pregnant women alter their alcohol consumption upon pregnancy awareness and any additive effect of a maternal history of child abuse and pregnancy-related anxiety in predicting antenatal alcohol consumption.

Experimental Neurology – Alcohol & cannabinoid co-use: Implications for impaired fetal brain development following gestational exposure. In this review paper, we will address what is currently known about combined exposure to these substances, both directly and prenatally, and identify shared prenatal targets from single-exposure paradigms that may highlight susceptible neurobiological mechanisms for future investigation and therapeutic intervention.

20 February 2023

Cells – Choline Supplementation Alters Hippocampal Cytokine Levels in Adolescence and Adulthood in an Animal Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Alcohol (ethanol) exposure during pregnancy can adversely affect development, with long-lasting consequences that include neuroimmune, cognitive, and behavioral dysfunction.

The Journal of Physiology – The role of maternal choline, folate and one-carbon metabolism in mediating the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on placental and fetal development
Prenatal alcohol consumption (PAE) may be associated with a broad spectrum of impacts, ranging from no overt effects, to miscarriage, fetal growth restriction and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Alcohol – Combined exposure to alcohol and cannabis during development: mechanisms and outcomes
The present review focuses on interactions between alcohol and cannabis exposure and the potential consequences of these interactions.

The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse – Global intellectual ability and adaptive functioning in children with FASD with and without sentinel facial features
The present study founds poorer cognitive outcomes in children who have FASD with sentinel facial features. In children without SFF, stronger executive functioning is also related to significantly stronger reported conceptual, social, and practical adaptive behaviors.

Maternal and Child Health Journal – Systematic Review: Polysubstance Prevalence Estimates Reported during Pregnancy, US, 2009–2020
Polysubstance use during pregnancy is common, especially with alcohol, marijuana, and/or tobacco/nicotine.

Women’s Health – Supporting pregnant and parenting women who use alcohol during pregnancy: A scoping review of trauma-informed approaches
Alcohol is legalized and used for a variety of reasons, including socially or as self-medication for trauma in the absence of accessible and safe supports.

Stroke – Abstract TP215: Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Impairs Long-term Behavioral Recovery Following Ischemic Stroke In Sprague Dawley Rats
The present findings support the hypothesis that PAE modifies long-term cognitive changes after stroke, and further show that different cognitive domains are affected by PAE in males and females.

Frontiers in Psychology – Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and Risk-Need-Responsivity Model: A guide for criminal justice and forensic mental health professionals
As the prevalence of FASD becomes better understood and recognized, evidence-based approaches to addressing this specific sub-population are necessary to effect change and reduce recidivism and ongoing involvement in the criminal justice system.

6 February 2023

The Lancet Public Health – Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and obstetric and birth outcomes: a Danish nationwide cohort study from 1996 to 2018
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with adverse obstetric and birth outcomes and high proportions of maternal low educational level, psychiatric disease, and lifestyle risk behaviours. These findings highlight a need for holistic public health programmes and policy attention on improving pre-conceptional care and antenatal care.

The Lancet Public Health – Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and overall morbidities: a Danish nationwide cohort study from 1996 to 2018
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with an overall increased risk of child morbidities and previously unrecognised alcohol-related health problems. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a key public health issue with a potential negative impact on child and adolescent health.

The Lancet Public Health – Effect of alcohol during pregnancy: a public health issue
Alcohol is a known teratogen and associated with a range of adverse outcomes for pregnant women and children exposed in utero. The most prominent of these is known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Alcohol Use: Assessment, Withdrawal Management, Treatment and Therapy – Alcohol Use During Pregnancy and Its Impacts on a Child’s Life
This chapter provides further background on FASD and then outlines the diagnostic process and why it is so challenging.

Women’s Health – Supportive alcohol policy as a key element of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder prevention
In Canada, a Four-Part Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Prevention has been developed that describes a continuum of multi-sectoral efforts, including broad awareness campaigns, safe and respectful conversations around pregnancy and alcohol use, and holistic and wraparound support services for pregnant and postpartum women with alcohol, and other health and social concerns.

Children – Evaluating the Difference in Neuropsychological Profiles of Individuals with FASD Based on the Number of Sentinel Facial Features: A Service Evaluation of the FASD UK National Clinic Database
It might be implied that those with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) with fewer sentinel facial features have a “milder” neuropsychological presentation, or present with fewer impairments than those with more sentinel facial features.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health – The Changes in the Level of Knowledge about the Effects of Alcohol Use during Pregnancy among Three Last Generations of Women in Poland
Since 1973, when the term Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was introduced, a major impact has been put on raising awareness about the negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Cells – Synaptic Plasticity Abnormalities in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
The brain’s ability to strengthen or weaken synaptic connections is often termed synaptic plasticity. It has been shown to function in brain remodeling following different types of brain damage (e.g., drugs of abuse, alcohol use disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory conditions).

Pediatric Research – Fetal anemia and elevated hepcidin in a mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
These data confirm and extend prior observations that PAE disrupts maternal and fetal iron metabolism and impairs the fetus’s ability to regulate iron status.

Children – Development and Evaluation of a Virtual Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) Assessment and Diagnosis in Children: A Pilot Study
The diagnostic process for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) involves a multi-disciplinary team and includes neurodevelopmental, physical, and facial assessments and evidence of prenatal alcohol exposure during the index pregnancy.

The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse – Folate administration ameliorates neurobehavioral effects of prenatal ethanol exposure
Folate administration should be considered as a preventive or acute treatment to attenuate the neurobehavioral effects of PEE.

Acta Neuropsychiatrica – Associations between community-level patterns of prenatal alcohol and tobacco exposure on brain structure in a non-clinical sample of 6-year-old children: a South African pilot study
The current small study utilized prospective data collection of patterns of prenatal alcohol and tobacco exposure (PAE and PTE) to examine associations with structural brain outcomes in 6-year-olds, and served as a pilot to determine the value of prospective data describing community-level patterns of PAE and PTE in a non-clinical sample of children.

Journal of EMDR Practice – The Effects of EMDR Therapy on Pregnant Clients With Substance Use Disorders: A Narrative, Scoping Literature Review
This narrative scoping literature review explores a significant clinical population, pregnant women with co-occurring substance misuse, through the lens of adaptive information processing and the potential for eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy intervention.

Antioxidants – Impact of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on the Development and Myocardium of Adult Mice: Morphometric Changes, Transcriptional Modulation of Genes Related to Cardiac Dysfunction, and Antioxidant Cardioprotection
In summary, PAE animals presented morphometric changes, transcription of cardiac dysfunction-related genes, and increased antioxidant protection in the myocardium.

MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report – Alcohol Use, Screening, and Brief Intervention Among Pregnant Persons — 24 U.S. Jurisdictions, 2017 and 2019
In 2017 and 2019, during their most recent health care visit, 80% of pregnant persons reported being asked about their alcohol use; only 16% of those with past 30-day alcohol consumption were advised by a health care provider to quit or reduce their alcohol use.

January 2023

Nature – Initial study on quantitative electroencephalographic analysis of bioelectrical activity of the brain of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) without epilepsy
The main objective of this study was to identify characteristic patterns in QEEG among individuals affected with FASD.

BMC Medicine – Chromatin modifier developmental pluripotency associated factor 4 (DPPA4) is a candidate gene for alcohol-induced developmental disorders
Our study shows the effects of early alcohol exposure on human embryonic and extraembryonic cells, introduces candidate genes for alcohol-induced developmental disorders, and reveals potential biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure.

The Lancet Public Health – Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and overall morbidities: a Danish nationwide cohort study from 1996 to 2018
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with an overall increased risk of child morbidities and previously unrecognised alcohol-related health problems. Prenatal alcohol exposure is a key public health issue with a potential negative impact on child and adolescent health. This study urges for renewed efforts and substantiates the profound degree to which pre-conceptional care is mandatory.

Logopedia Silesiana – Performance of a picture description by ten-year-olds with fetal alcohol syndrome
The subject of this paper is describing of a picture by ten-year-olds with fetal alcohol syndrome and their peers from a control group.

ResearchGate – Leveraging Community-University Partnerships to Develop a Strength-Based and Individualized Approach to Humanizing Housing Service Delivery for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD)
This field report summarizes and advances key learnings for leveraging community–university partnerships addressing housing service gaps for high-risk, marginalized populations with complex needs.

African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine – Alcohol ban during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown: Lessons for preventing foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in South Africa
During the two national lockdowns implemented in South Africa to curb the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages were prohibited.

Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs – Adverse childhood experiences and neurodevelopmental disorders among youth with and without prenatal substance exposure: A longitudinal matched register-based cohort study
A strong association between ACEs and neurodevelopmental disorders was found. Brain research is needed to examine whether ACEs worsen neurodevelopmental outcomes caused by PSE.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Comparison of three systems for the diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in a community sample
These results indicate a lack of consistency in these approaches to diagnosis. Discrepancies result from differences in specifying the criteria used to define the diagnosis, including growth, physical features, neurobehavior and alcohol-use thresholds.

Journal of Affective Disorders – Prenatal alcohol exposure enhanced alcohol preference and susceptibility to PTSD in a sex-dependent manner through the synaptic HCN1 channel
Overall, these results suggest that PAE enhances alcohol preference and susceptibility to PTSD through synaptic HCN1 channels in the PFC. In addition, ZD7288 may be a promising candidate for preventing alcohol-associated PTSD-like syndrome, particularly in males.

Plos one – Spatial distribution and determinants of alcohol consumption among pregnant women in Ethiopia: Spatial and multilevel analysis
Alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Ethiopia was high. The spatial distribution of alcohol consumption was significantly varied across the country.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences – Molecular Markers in Maternal Blood Exosomes Allow Early Detection of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause developmental abnormalities (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders; FASD), including small eyes, face and brain, and neurobehavioral deficits.

Developmental Neuroscience – Auditory Outcomes in Adolescents with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure
Investigate three aspects of auditory function (auditory acuity, cochlear dysfunction, and auditory processing) in adolescents with fetal alcohol exposure without phenotypic changes.

November 2022

Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – MicroRNA-150-5p is upregulated in the brain microvasculature during prenatal alcohol exposure and inhibits the angiogenic factor Vezf1
miR-150-5p regulation of Vezf1 results in altered endothelial cell function during alcohol exposure. Further, miR-150-5p inhibition of Vezf1 may adversely alter the development of the cortical microvasculature during PAE and contribute to deficits seen in patients with FASD.

Child & Family Social Work – ‘It’s rewarding because I get the love’: Grandparents raising grandchildren with foetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Grandparents raising their grandchildren with FASD face challenges and thus require specific supports so that they may adequately provide a safe and nurturing home environment for children with often challenging learning and social needs.

Ophthalmic Epidemiology – Eye Abnormalities in Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review
Examination of eyes and vision should be considered in children with PAE and suspected or diagnosed FASD to enable early identification and optimal management. – Evidence synthesis – Accuracy of administrative database algorithms for autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder case ascertainment: a systematic review
There is some evidence to suggest that cases of ASD and ADHD can be identified using administrative data; however, studies that assessed the ability of algorithms to discriminate reliably between cases with and without the condition of interest were lacking. No evidence exists for FASD.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders – Comparative Analysis of Physical Traits of Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa and the United States and the Likelihood of FASD Births
The prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in recent years was 29% among children in the Western Cape Province of South Africa and 6.5% in four regions of the United States.

Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – The impact of prenatal alcohol and/or tobacco exposure on brain structure in a large sample of children from a South African birth cohort
PAE was associated with reduction in structure of the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for learning and memory. PTE had stronger and broader associations, including with regions associated with executive function, reward processing, and emotional regulation, potentially reflecting continued postnatal exposure to tobacco (i.e., second-hand smoke exposure).

Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research – Early developmental alcohol exposure alters behavioral outcomes following adolescent re-exposure in a rat model
These results indicate that combined exposure to alcohol during these two critical periods reduces anxiety-related behaviors and/or increases risk taking in a sex-dependent manner, suggesting that prenatal alcohol exposure may affect risk for emotional consequences of adolescent alcohol exposure.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder – Alcohol Use Screening in Pregnant and Childbearing Aged Women: Practices and Implications
Increased use of these strategies would reduce risk of adverse outcomes to women and their children, decrease new cases of FASD and recurrence of FASD in families, and thus would improve maternal and child health.

American Journal of Perinatology – The Impact of Self-Reported Alcohol, Tobacco, and Recreational Drug Use during Pregnancy on Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in First-Time Mothers
Trajectories of substance use are associated with APOs; thus, interventions to mitigate the use when encountered early in pregnancy are warranted.

Int J Environ Res Public Health – Preventing Drift through Continued Co-Design with a First Nations Community: Refining the Prototype of a Tiered FASD Assessment
This study emphasised the benefit of continued co-design to ensure health implementation strategies match the needs of the community.

Alcohol – Ethanol sustains phosphorylated tau protein in the cultured neonatal rat hippocampus: Implications for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders
This is the first study to show that ethanol exposure sustains tau Threonine231 phosphorylation in the perinatal hippocampus regardless of Total Tau expression.

Cureus – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder in a Newborn. Our objective was to evaluate a three-day-old male infant born at 37 weeks gestation via vaginal delivery to a mother with admitted excessive alcohol intake for FASD. On physical appearance, the newborn had evidence of smooth philtrum and thin vermillion border, which are two of the three cardinal facial characteristics for dysmorphology.

Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and access to Regional Center Services in San Diego County
The 6.9% prevalence estimate among Regional Center clients was higher than the prevalence estimate of 2.3% in the same community among 5–7-year-old children in the general population.

African Journal of Reproductive Health – Barriers and facilitators of alcohol abstinence during pregnancy
There is a limited understanding of why pregnant women drink in the South African context, particularly in rural settings, where the prevalence of FASD is highest.

City University of Seattle – Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD): Examining How School Counsellors Can Support Students Diagnosed with FASD Through Life Skills and Social-Emotional Learning. The research question I will addressed in this capstone is: How can school counsellors support students diagnosed with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder through life skills and social-emotional learning?

SSRN – Maternal Alcoholism Affects Cell Lineage in Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis. These results suggest that pathways implicated in cell determination were affected by PEE and remained affect in adulthood.

Laurier – “The system is not set up for individuals with FASD”: Lived and Caregiver Perspectives Regarding Current and Ideal Housing Supports for Canadian Adults with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. This study offers insight into the perspectives of adults with FASD regarding their daily living support, which is critical to inform future supported housing and support self-determination.

AAIDD – The Strengths and Positive Influences of Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders
This study is the first to examine strengths and positive influences of young children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

Drug and Alcohol Review – Evaluation outcomes of an alcohol and pregnancy campaign targeting multiple audiences. Results indicate the campaign was well received by respondents, increased concern about drinking alcohol during pregnancy and positively influenced women’s intentions to refrain from drinking while pregnant.

Biomedicines – Sex-Related Differences in Voluntary Alcohol Intake and mRNA Coding for Synucleins in the Brain of Adult Rats Prenatally Exposed to Alcohol. These findings indicate that the impact of PAE on transcriptional regulation of synucleins may be sex-dependent, and in males’ disruption in α-synuclein mRNA expression may contribute to increased vulnerability to alcohol-associated behavior.

Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy – Effectiveness of a practice change intervention in reducing alcohol consumption in pregnant women attending public maternity services. Special occasion drinking was reduced following implementation of guideline-recommended care. Failure to change other patterns of alcohol use in pregnancy may reflect barriers to implementing the model of care in antenatal care settings and the need to address other social determinants of alcohol use.

Child Psychiatry & Human Development – Characteristics of the Symptoms of the Proposed ND-PAE Disorder in First Grade Children in a Community Sample. The proposed symptoms for Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (ND-PAE) were evaluated in children who participated in the Collaboration on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Prevalence study.

Dialogues in Health – Prevention of alcohol related harm though preconception care: A scoping review of barriers and enablers. Investment in alcohol education and skills training for healthcare professionals is required to ensure a coherent message is communicated across services, and that shared decision making about healthcare between service users and health professionals is facilitated.

Journal of Karnali Academy of Health Sciences – Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and its association with Fetal Outcome in a Mountainous District of Nepal. The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy was seen in one out of three mothers. Mothers were at the highest risk of delivering low birth weight babies if they had a binge alcohol consumption pattern.

Frontiers – How the alcohol industry fought against pregnancy warning labels in France. A press coverage analysis spanning 20 years. This study fills a gap in the Anglosphere research on lobbying against alcohol warnings by analyzing lobbyists’ arguments over a 20-year period covering both failed and successful industry lobbying.

Qualitative Health Research – Researching Alcohol Consumption During Pregnancy. Opportunities and Challenges With Two Methods of Data Acquisition. These results have implications for research about female substance use. Knowledge of the issues will bestow a valuable contribution to researchers working in the field of substance use to help develop appropriate research approaches, as they engage in research into this highly stigmatized and controversial area.